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Bone Loss and Osteoporosis An Anthropological Perspective

ISBN-10: 030647767X

ISBN-13: 9780306477676

Edition: 2003

Authors: Sabrina C. Agarwal, Samuel D. Stout

List price: $159.99
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Book details

List price: $159.99
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 12/31/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 240
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

Current Concepts of Bone Loss and Osteoporosis
New Concepts of Bone Remodeling: A Unified Spatial and Temporal Model with Physiologic and Pathophysiologic Implications
Introduction
The Purposes of Bone Remodeling
The Basic Multicellular Unit as the Instrument of Bone Remodeling
Disordered Remodeling and Age Related Bone Loss
References
On Changing Views about Age-Related Bone Loss
Introduction
On the Two Paradigms
The 1960 Paradigm
The Utah Paradigm
Age-Related Bone Loss
A Proposed Synthesis
Conclusions
References
Glossary
The Role of Bone Quality on Bone Loss and Fragility
Introduction
Determination of Bone Quality
Aging Changes in the Skeleton
The Problem of Diagenesis
Changes in Bone Mineralization with Diseases and Treatments
What Determines Skeletal Fragility?
Conclusions
References
Population Approaches
Ethnic Differences in Bone Mass and Architecture
Introduction
Osteoporosis
Bone Densitometry and Assessment of Bone Architecture
Bone Density and Fracture Incidence
Use of "Race" and "Ethnicity" in Biomedical Literature on Osteoporosis
Bone Mass and Bone Density
Definitions of Bone Density
Ethnic Differences in Bone Density
Bone Quality and Bone Turnover
Factors Affecting Bone Mass and Bone Loss
Adjusting Bone Density for Body Size
Body Size and Composition, and Preservation of the Skeleton
Calcium Nutrition
Physical Activity
Bone Geometry
Hip Axis Length
Cross-Sectional Geometry
Fracture Incidence
Summary
References
Bone Loss, Fracture Histories, and Body Composition Characteristics of Older Males
Background
Definition of Terms
Bone Loss in Other Primates
Population Differences
Risk Factors
Factors Influencing Bone Turnover
Peak Bone Mass
Endocrinological Factors
Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptors
Body Composition and Mechanical Factors
The Sun City/Tucson Longitudinal Study
Objectives
Subjects
Methods
Results
Discussion
Observed Bone Loss
Changes in Body Composition
Nutrition, Bone Density, and Prostate Cancer
Summary and Conclusions
References
The Histomorphometry of the Subadult Rib: Age-Associated Changes in Bone Mass and the Creation of Peak Bone Mass
Introduction
Intracortical Bone Remodeling in the Subadult Rib
Peak Bone Mass and Age-Associated Bone Loss
Factors Determining Peak Bone Mass
A Study of Subadult Rib Histomorphometry
Cross-Sectional Areas and Bone Mass
Intracortical Remodeling: Osteon Population Density and Osteon Size
Summary and Conclusions
References
Evolutionary Perspectives
An Evolutionary and Biocultural Approach to Understanding the Effects of Reproductive Factors on the Female Skeleton
Introduction
Pregnancy
Parity
Lactation
Animal Models
Evolutionary and Historical Evidence
Discussion
Conclusions
References
Functional Adaptation and Fragility of the Skeleton
Introduction
Mechanisms of Functional Adaptation
Effector Cells
Sensor Cells
Strain and the Mechanostat
The Two Poles of Adaptation
Disuse: Subnormal Loading
Overuse: Supernormal Loading
Skeletal Maintenance
Fatigue Damage Activates Remodeling
Remodeling Reduces Skeletal Weight
Responsive vs. Permissive Remodeling
The Volume Effect on Strength and Fatigue Life
Somatic vs. Evolutionary Adaptation
Skeletal Fragility
The Mechanostat and Sexual Dimorphism
Mechanical Priorities in Male and Female Bones
Estrogen and the Mechanostat Set Point
Menopause, the Set Point, and Postmenopausal Fragility
Summary
Acknowledgments
References
Effects of Vitamin D on Bone and Natural Selection of Skin Color: How Much Vitamin D Nutrition are We Talking About?
Introduction
Skin and Vitamin D Uptake
Metabolism of Vitamin D
What is Lack of Vitamin D?
"Normal" Requirements for Calcium and Vitamin D
Fur-Bearing Primates Obtain Vitamin D by Mouth
Vitamin D Deficiency Affecting Genetic Selection for Lighter Skin Color
Nutritional Implications of Vitamin D in Human Biology
References
Bone Loss and Osteoporosis in Past Populations
Techniques for the Investigation of Age-Related Bone Loss and Osteoporosis in Archaeological Bone
Introduction
Background
Problems with Diagenetic Change
Visual Examination of Complete Bones
Investigations of Cortical Bone
Metacarpal Radiogrammetry
Cortical Histomorphometry
Investigations of Trabecular Bone
Visual Examination of Trabecular Bone Structure
Singh Index
Image Analysis of Trabecular Architecture
Stereometry
Energy Dispersive Low Angle X-Ray Scattering (EDLAXS)
Investigative Techniques that Measure Whole Bone
Optical/Photo Densitometry
Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)
Conclusions
References
Differentail Diagnoses of Intravitam and Postmortem Bone Loss at the Micro-Level
Introduction
Methods and Techniques Used in Histological Research of Macerated Bone Specimens
Intravitam Changes
Primary Osteoporosis
Idiopathic Osteoporosis
Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Senile Osteoporosis
Secondary Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis due to Inactivity and Immobilization
Bone Loss Caused by Inflammatory Processes
Bone Loss Caused by Tumorous Processes
Causes of Postmortem Bone Loss
Soil and water
Plant Roots
Fungi, Algae, Bacteria, and Protozoa
Arthropods and their larvae
Conclusions and Summary
Acknowledgments
References
Histomorphology, Geometry, and Mechanical Loading in Past Populations
Introduction
Mechanobiology Methods for Preserved Skeletal Remains
Interpreting Preserved Evidence of Mechanical Loading History from Bone Geometry
Bone Microstructure and Mechanical Loading History
Application of Geometric and Histologic Biomechanical Approaches to Past Populations: The Palomans
Skeletal Sample
Methods and Findings
Changes through Time at Paloma
Conclusions
References
Bone Remodeling and Age-Associated Bone Loss in the Past: A Histomorphometric Analysis of the Imperial Roman Skeletal Population of Isola Sacra
Introduction
Principles and Methodology of Bone Histomorphometry
Cortical Bone Sample Preparation
An Algorithm for Estimating Bone Remodeling rates in Ancient Skeletal Samples
Diagenesis
Age-at-Death
Previous Applications of Histomorphology in Past Populations
African Populations
European Populations
Native American Populations
Other Populations
Present Study: An Example in Histomorphology and Bioarchaeology
Materials
Methods
Results
Cortical Area in Isola Sacra
Bone Remodeling in Isola Sacra
Comparison of Isola Sacra with Modern samples
Age Associated Bone Loss in the Imperial Romans
Future Directions
Acknowledgments
References
Index