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Archaeological Survey

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ISBN-10: 0306473488

ISBN-13: 9780306473487

Edition: 2002

Authors: E. B. Banning

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This practical volume, the first book in the Manuals in Archaeological Method, Theory and Technique Series , examines in detail the factors that affect archaeological detectability in surveys whose methods range from visual to remote sensing in land, underwater, and intertidal zones - furnishing a comprehensive treatment of prospection, parameter estimation, model building, and detection of spatial structure. Emphasizing careful survey design, including mathematical methods for optimizing the size and arrangement of observation units, Archaeological Survey provides a wealth of new material as well as new interpretations on standard techniques. This important resource: -Presents both…    
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Book details

Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 10/31/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 273
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.034
Language: English

List of Figures
List of Tables
A Brief History of Archaeological Survey
Early Archaeological Reconnaissance
Fieldwalking in Britain
Early Air Reconnaissance
Surveys in Northwest Europe
The Viru Valley Survey
Diyala and Uruk Surveys, Iraq
The Basin of Mexico Project
Site Survey in the American Southwest
Survey in North American Forests
"Non-site Survey," and "Landscape Archaeology"
Intertidal and Shallow-lake Survey
Survey's Unique Contribution to Archaeology
Surface Distributions and Buried Landscapes
Models of Cultural Distributions
The Monument Model
The Earthwork Model
The Uniform Distribution
The Modal, "Bulls-eye," or "Fried-egg" Model
Mathematical Models for Clusters of Artifacts
Contagious Distributions
The Palimpsest Model
The "Off-site" or "Intersite" Model
The Distributional or "Non-site" Model
The Place Model
The Paleolandscape Model
Research Design in Archaeological Survey
The Goals of Archaeological Survey
Types of Goals
Statistical Survey
Populations, Parameters and Estimation
Estimating Densities of Sites
Estimating Densities of Artifacts on the Landscape
Estimating Proportions of Site Types
Estimating Human Population Size or Growth Rate
Estimating Proportions of Sites by Ecological or Land-use Zone
Estimating Parameters of Artifact Attributes
Estimating the Range or Diversity of Archaeological Materials
The Relevance of Prospecting Tools
Surveying for Spatial Structure
Detecting Settlement Lattices, Landscape Systems, and Communication Routes
Mapping "Continuous" Distributions
Surveys with Multiple Goals
The Issue of Methodological Consistency
The Discovery of Archaeological Materials by Survey
Factors Affecting Archaeological Detection
Method of Inspection
Visual Inspection in Surface Survey
Visual Inspection of Aerial Photographs with Groundchecks
Survey by Test Pits, Divoting, Coring, or Augering (SST)
Geophysical Survey
Resistivity Survey
Magnetometer Survey
Electromagnetic (EM) Survey
Seismic Survey
Sonar or Acoustic Survey
Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)
Chemical Survey
Thermal Survey
Underwater Survey
The Constituents of Archaeological Distributions
Obtrusiveness of Artifact Scatters
Constituent Removal by Chemical or Mechanical Destruction
Obtrusiveness in Aerial Reconnaissance
Obtrusiveness in Geophysical Survey
Obtrusiveness in Chemical Survey
Distance from Target to Sensor
The Law of Clean Sweep or Definite Detection
Inverse-cube Law
Geometry of Sites or Artifact Clusters
Intensity or Density of Effort
Crew Training, Experience, and Motivation
Training and Briefing Team Members
Team Composition
Team Motivation
Accounting for Variability
Data Units
False Targets
Estimating Discovery Probabilities
Post-depositional Factors that Affect Spatial Pattern
Artifact Displacement or Sorting by Erosion
Artifact Removal by Erosion
Artifact Displacement or Removal by Bioturbation
Artifact Removal by Chemical or Mechanical Destruction
Artifact Displacement by Plowing
Units, Sampling Frames, and Edge Effects in Archaeological Survey
The Spatial Distribution of Material Culture
Boundaries of the Survey Area
Physical-Geographical Boundaries
Historical-Political Boundaries
Estimated Political-Economic Boundaries
Catchment Boundaries
Oversize Boundaries and Group Territories
Edge Effects
Edge Effects in Nearest Neighbor Analysis
Edge Effects on Rank-Size Analysis
Types, Shapes, and Orientation of Units
Site Size, Shape, and Orientation
Geometrical Spatial Units
Edge Effects on the Detection of Sites
Edge Effects on Parameter Estimates
Cost Effects of Unit Size
Non-geometrical Spatial Units
Arrangement of Units
Regular Grids
Arrangement of Point Samples
Parallel Transects
Intersecting Transects
Undulating Transects
Retiring-square Pattern
Unconventional Arrangements
Nested Arrangements
Scale Effects in Archaeological Survey
Size of Units
Optimal Arrangements, Sizes, and Spacing
Optimizing the Arrangement of Systematic Point Grids
Optimizing the Arrangement of Continuous Parallel Transects
Optimizing the Arrangement of Polygons
Optimizing the Spacing of Systematic Point Grids
Optimal Spacing of Point Grids at a Fixed Cost
Optimal Spacing of Point Grids Taking Cost and "Value" into Account
Optimizing the Spacing of Parallel Transects
Optimal Spacing of Transects Taking Costs and "Value" into Account
Spacing Transects within Polygons
Retiring-square Pattern
Optimizing the Size of Quadrats and Other Spatial Units
Optimizing Polygon Size for the Variance of Estimates at a Fixed Cost
Balancing the Costs and Benefits of Polygon Size
Optimizing the Size of SSTs for Artifact Density
Influences on Detection of Spatial Pattern
Influences on Parameter Estimates
Sampling Space: Statistical Surveys