Schools for Thought A Science of Learning in the Classroom

ISBN-10: 0262521962

ISBN-13: 9780262521963

Edition: 1994

Authors: John T. Bruer

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Schools for Thought provides a straightforward, general introduction to cognitive research and illustrates its importance for educational change. Using classroom examples, John Bruer shows how applying cognitive research can dramatically improve students' transitions from lower-level rote skills to advanced proficiency in reading, writing, mathematics, and science.
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Book details

List price: $36.00
Copyright year: 1994
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 8/22/1994
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 336
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.188
Language: English

John T. Bruer is President of the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

Applying What We Know in Our Schools: A New Theory of Learning
What Most Students Can Do Is No Longer Enough
New Expectations
A Science of Mind: The MIT Meeting
The Revolution Becomes a Discipline
Cognitive Bottlenecks and High-Order Skills
Knowing Why
The Science of Mind: Analyzing Tasks, Behaviors, and Representations
A Balance-Scale Problem
The Human Computer and How It Works
Processing and Storing Symbols: Human Memory Structures
Problems and Representations
Analyzing the Task
Analyzing the Balance-Scale Task
Finding Out What Children Know
Experts and Response-Time Studies
The Balance Scale and Learning
Protocol Analysis, Encoding, and Representations
From Rule III to Rule IV
Cognitive Research and Effective Instruction
Intelligent Novices: Knowing How to Learn
Formal Disciplines and Mental Fitness
Elements, Productions, and Transfer
General Methods and Intelligent Behavior
Experts' Domain-Specific Knowledge
Weak Methods in the Schools
Metacognition and Intelligent Novices
Metacognition and Education
The Final Element: General Skills Again
The New Synthesis and the Teaching of High-Order Skills
Mathematics: Making It Meaningful
Preschool Children and Number
The Mental Number Line: The Heart of Math Readiness
The Readiness Module
Knowing Your Places: Learning Multi-Digit Arithmetic
Buggy Arithmetic
Marrying Concepts to Procedures
The Bug Picture
Word Problems: The Black Hole of Middle School Math
The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury: Invitations to Thinking
Jasper's Theoretical Basis: Representations and Inert Knowledge
Theory into Prototype
Jasper's Debut
The Jasper Implementation Network
Geometry Proof Tutor: An Underground Classic
The Sorry State of Geometry
The Expert Model
The Tutor
The Interface
GPTutor in the Classroom
From Theory to Practice to Theory
Science: Inside the Black Box
Inside the Black Box
Misconceptions and Cognitive Development
The Jumping-Off Point
Expert vs. Novice Physicists
Problem-Solving Behavior
Schemas and Problem Solving
ThinkerTools: Physics in Middle School
Designing ThinkerTools
Motion in One Direction
Motion in Two Dimensions
Continuous Forces and Gravity
Analyzing Trajectories
The Theory of Instruction: Using the Microworlds
ThinkerTools in the Schools
High School Physics from a Cognitive Perspective
Benchmark Lessons: What Are Your Ideas Right Now?
Don't Feel Dumb!
Does It Work? Why?
Teaching for Understanding
Reading: Seeing the Big Picture
Cognitive Models of Skilled Reading
One Loop Through the Cycle
Cognitive Models and Reading Instruction
Explaining the Whys
Word Recognition: Accuracy Plus Speed
Automaticity and the Great Debate
Improving Linguistic Knowledge: Rich Vocabulary Instruction
Background Knowledge in Learning to Read
Background Knowledge in Reading to Learn
The Big Picture: Reciprocal Teaching, Metacognition, and Reading
Into the Classroom
Writing: Transforming Knowledge
Writing: Solving Ill-Defined Problems
Studying the Process: A Cognitive Model of Writing
Planning and Its Subprocesses
Expert, Novice, and Student Writers
From Cognitive Process to Cognitive Rhetoric
Constructive Planning: Building Rhetorical Representations
Knowledge Telling versus Knowledge Transforming
Tanya Again
Writing in the Culture of School
Collaborative Planning: Making Thinking Visible
CSILE on Huron Street
Student from a traditional classroom:
CSILE Student:
Testing, Trying, and Teaching
Cognition and Testing: From Correlations to Causes
The Traditional Theory of Testing
A Cognitive Theory of Learning Assessment
Intelligence and Assessment: Beyond IQ
Dynamic Assessment: Helping Weak Learners
Motivation: Thriving versus Withering
Motivation and Classroom Practices
Teacher Cognition: What Does Nancy Know?
The Missing Research Program
Teaching and Knowledge Transforming
Changing Our Representations: Thinking of Education in New Ways
A Science of Learning in the Classroom
Representations of Research
Solving an Ill-Structured Problem
Knowing Why
Suggested Reading
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