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Sustainable Energy Choosing among Options

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ISBN-10: 0262201534

ISBN-13: 9780262201537

Edition: 2005

Authors: Jefferson W. Tester, Elisabeth M. Drake, Michael J. Driscoll, Michael W. Golay, William A. Peters

List price: $89.00
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Description:

Human survival depends on a continuing energy supply, but the need for ever-increasing amounts of energy poses a dilemma: How can we provide the benefits of energy to the population of the globe without damaging the environment, negatively affecting social stability, or threatening the well-being of future generations? The solution will lie in finding sustainable energy sources and more efficient means of converting and utilizing energy. This textbook is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as others who have an interest in exploring energy resource options and technologies with a view toward achieving sustainability. It clearly presents the trade-offs and uncertainties inherent in evaluating and choosing different energy options and provides a framework for assessing policy solutions."Sustainable Energy includes illustrative examples, problems, references for further reading, and links to relevant Web sites. Outside the classroom, the book is a resource for government, industry, and nonprofit organizations. The first six chapters provide the tools for making informed energy choices. They examine the broader aspects of energy use, including resource estimation, environmental effects, and economic evaluations. Chapters 7-15 review the main energy sources of today and tomorrow, including fossil fuels, nuclear power, biomass, geothermal energy, hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy, examining their technologies, environmental impacts, and economics. The remaining chapters treat energy storage, transmission, and distribution; the electric power sector; transportation; industrial energy usage; commercial and residential buildings; and synergistic complexsystems. "Sustainable Energy addresses the challenges of integrating diverse factors and the importance for future generations of the energy choices we make today.
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Book details

List price: $89.00
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 6/10/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 872
Size: 7.50" wide x 10.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 3.740
Language: English

Jefferson W. Tester is Croll Professor of Sustainable Energy Systems at Cornell University.

Elisabeth M. Drake is Associate Director of the Energy Laboratory, Emeritus, at MIT.

Michael J. Driscoll is Professor Emeritus of Nuclear Science and Engineering at MIT.

Michael W. Golay is Professor of Nuclear Engineering at MIT.

William A. Peters is Executive Director of the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies at MIT.

Preface
Acknowledgments
Sustainable Energy-The Engine of Sustainable Development
Sustainable Energy: The Engine of Sustainable Development
Defining Energy-Scientific and Engineering Foundations
Aspects of Energy Production and Consumption
National and Global Patterns of Energy Supply and Utilization
Environmental Effects of Energy-Gaining Understanding
Confronting the Energy-Prosperity-Environmental Dilemma
Mathematical Representations of Sustainability
The Rest of This Book
References
Estimation and Evaluation of Energy Resources
Units of Measurement: Energy and Power
Comparison of Different Forms of Energy
The Energy Lifecycle
Estimation and Valuation of Fossil Mineral Fuels, Especially Petroleum
Asking the right questions and avoiding the unanswerable ones
Perspectives from mineral geology
Two interpretations of hydrocarbon fuel economics
Categories of reserves
Forecasting mineral fuel prices and supplies
Geopolitical factors and energy supply "crises"
Lessons for Sustainable Development
Summary and Conclusions
References
Technical Performance: Allowability, Efficiency, Production Rates
Relation to Sustainability
An Introduction to Methods of Thermodynamic Analysis
Allowability, efficiency, and the Second Law
More about entropy
Analysis of ideal (Carnot) heat engines
Analysis of real world (irreversible) heat engines
The Importance of Rate Processes in Energy Conversion
Chemical Rate Processes
The Physical Transport of Heat
Foundations for quantitative analysis
Thermal conduction
Convective heat transfer
Radiative heat transmission
Heat transfer by tandem mechanisms
Use and Abuse of Time Scales
Energy Resources and Energy Conversion-Fertile Common Ground
References
Problems
Local, Regional, and Global Environmental Effects of Energy
How Energy Systems Interact with the Environment
Known and potential environmental threats
Origin of harmful agents
Length and time scales for environmental impacts
Adverse Environmental Effects Over Local and Regional Length Scales
Ambient air pollution
Adulteration of soil, water, and indoor air
Transport and transformation of air, ground, and water contamination
Global Climate Change: Environmental Consequences over Planetary-Length Scales
Introduction
Basic science of the greenhouse effect
Energy and the greenhouse effect
Greenhouse consequences: Consensus, unknowns, misconceptions
Technological and policy response strategies: Evolutionary and revolutionary
Attribution of Environmental Damage to Energy Utilization
Diagnosing receptor jeopardy and injury
Source identification
Risk and uncertainty
Methods of Environmental Protection
Energy and the environment as an ensemble of coupled complex systems
Earth-system ecology as a working paradigm
Public policy instruments
Technological remedies
Environmental Benefits of Energy
Pollution prevention and environmental restoration
Social and economic foundations for environmental stewardship
Implications for Sustainable Energy
Environmental footprints as sustainability metrics
The unusual challenge of global climate change
Problems
Lessons from SO[subscript 2] Emissions Trading
References
Project Economic Evaluation
Introduction
Time Value of Money Mechanics
Basic aspects
Application to a typical cash flow scenario
Derivation of relations
Pitfalls, errors, and ambiguities
Current versus Constant-Dollar Comparisons
Simple Payback
Economy of Scale and Learning Curve
Allowing for Uncertainty
Overview
Analytic uncertainty propagation
The Monte Carlo method
Decision tree method
Accounting for Externalities
Energy Accounting
Modeling Beyond the Project Level
Chapter Summary
Appendix A
Appendix B
References
Problems
Energy Systems and Sustainability Metrics
Introduction and Historical Notes
Energy from a Systems Perspective
Systems Analysis Approaches
Lifecycle analysis
Simulation models
Risk-based models
Measures of Sustainability
General indicators of sustainability
Categories of indicators
Drivers of Societal Change
Some General Principles of Sustainable Development
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Fossil Fuels and Fossil Energy
Introduction
Definition and types of fossil fuels
Historical and current contributions of fossil fuels to human progress
Sustainability: Challenges and opportunities
The Fossil Fuel Resource Base
How long will fossil fuels last?
"Unconventional" naturally occurring fossil fuels
Fossil resources and sustainability
Harvesting Energy and Energy Products from Fossil Fuels
Exploration, discovery, and extraction of fuels
Fuel storage and transportation
Fuel conversion
Fuel combustion
Direct generation of electricity: Fuel cells
Manufacture of chemicals and other products
Environmental Impacts
Pollutant sources and remedies: The fuel itself
Pollutant sources and remedies: Combustion pathologies
Pollutant sources and remedies: Carbon management
Geopolitical and Sociological Factors
Globalization of fossil energy sources
Equitable access, Revenue scaffolds, "American Graffiti"
Economics of Fossil Energy
Some Principles for Evaluating Fossil and Other Energy Technology Options
Emerging Technologies
Closure: Why Are Fossil Fuels Important to Sustainable Energy?
References
Problems
Nuclear Power
Nuclear History
Physics
Nuclear Reactors
Burning and Breeding
Nuclear Power Economics
The Three Mile Island 2 Nuclear Power Plant Accident
Reactor Safety
Light-Water Reactors (LWR)
Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR) Technologies
Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) Technology
RBMK Reactors
Heavy-Water Cooled Technologies
Gas-Cooled Reactor Technologies
Liquid-Metal Reactor Technologies
Actinide Burning
Advanced Reactors
Nuclear Power Fuel Resources
Fuel Cycle
Uranium mining
Uranium milling
Conversion
Enrichment
Fuel fabrication
Spent fuel
Reprocessing
High Level Wastes (HLW) disposal
Fusion Energy
Introduction
Why is fusion more difficult than fission?
Magnetic fusion energy
Inertial fusion energy
Prospects for the future
Future Prospects for Nuclear Power
References
Additional Resources
Renewable Energy in Context
Introduction and Historical Notes
Resource Assessment
Environmental Impacts
Technology Development and Deployment
The Importance of Storage
Connecting Renewables to Hydrogen
The Future for Renewable Energy
Additional Resources
References
Biomass Energy
Characterizing the Biomass Resource
Biomass Relevance to Energy Production
Utilization options
Advantages and disadvantages
More on resources
Chemical and Physical Properties Relevant to Energy Production
Biomass Production: Useful Scaling Parameters
Thermal Conversion of Biomass
Biomass to electricity
Biomass to fuels
Bioconversion
Introduction
Biogas
Fermentation ethanol from corn and cellulosic biomass
Environmental Issues
Economics
Enabling Research and Development
Disruptive Technology
Summary
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Geothermal Energy
Characterization of Geothermal Resource Types
Definition in general
Natural hydrothermal systems
Geopressured systems
Hot dry rock
Magma
Ultra low-grade systems
Markets for geothermal energy
Geothermal Resource Size and Distribution
Overall framework and terminology
Quality issues
Resource base and reserve estimates
Practical Operation and Equipment for Recovering Energy
Drilling and field development
Reservoir fluid production
Non-electric, direct-heat utilization
Electric power generation
Equipment
Power cycle performance
Sustainability Attributes
Reservoir lifetime issues
Environmental impacts
Dispatchable heat and power delivery
Suitability for developing countries
Potential for CO[subscript 2] reduction and pollution prevention
Status of Geothermal Technology Today
Hydrothermal
Advanced systems
Competing in Today's Energy Markets
Research and Development Advances Needed
Potential for the Long Term
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Hydropower
Overview of Hydropower
Hydropower Resource Assessment
Basic Energy Conversion Principles
Conversion Equipment and Civil Engineering Operations
Civil engineering aspects of dam construction and waterway management
Turbines as energy convertors
Sustainability Attributes
Status of Hydropower Technology Today
Economic issues
Potential for growth
Advanced technology needs
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Solar Energy
General Characteristics of Solar Energy
Resource Assessment
Passive and Active Solar Thermal Energy for Buildings
Motivation and general issues
Passive systems
Active systems
Economic and policy issues
Solar Thermal Electric Systems-Concentrating Solar Power
Fundamentals and options
Power tower-central receiver systems
Parabolic troughs
Dish engine systems
Current status and future potential of CSP
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
Solid state physical chemistry fundamentals
Performance limits and design options
Silica-based systems (crystalline and amorphous)
Copper indium diselenide (CIS)
Cadmium telluride (CdTe)
Current status and future potential of PV
Sustainability Attributes
Summary and Prognosis
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Ocean Waves, Tide, and Thermal Energy Conversion
Introduction
Energy from the Tides
Energy from the Waves: Overview
Energy from Temperature Differences
Overview
Performance limits
OTEC technology
Economic Prospects
Environmental and Sustainability Considerations
The Ocean as an Externalities Sink
Current Status and Future Prospects
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Appendix
Wind Energy
Introduction and Historical Notes
Wind Resources
Wind quality
Variation of wind speed with elevation
Air density
Maximum wind turbine efficiency: The Betz ratio
Wind Machinery and Generating Systems
Overview
Rotor blade assembly
Tower
Nacelle components
Balance-of-station subsystems
System design challenges
Wind Turbine Rating
Wind Power Economics
Measures of Sustainability
Net energy analysis
Cost of externalities
Environmental impact of wind power
Current Status/Future Prospects
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Appendix
Storage, Transportation, and Distribution of Energy
Overview of Energy Supply Infrastructure Needs
Connected Efficiencies and Energy Chains
Modes of Energy Storage
General characteristics
Energy storage technologies
Energy Transmission
General characteristics of energy transmission systems
Oil transport
Natural gas transport
Coal transport
Electric power transmission
Energy Distribution Systems
General characteristics of central versus distributed systems
Combined heat and power opportunities
Applications to renewable energy systems and hybrids
Sustainability Attributes
Improved resource utilization
Environmental, safety, and health concerns
Economic and operational attributes
Opportunities for Advancement of Sustainable Energy Infrastructures
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Electric Power Sector
Introduction and Historical Perspectives
Power Generation
Electric energy
Centralized energy generation
Electric power generation
Environmental effects of electricity production
Power plant siting requirements
Electricity economics
Ways of organizing the electric economy
Demand-side management (DSM) and distributed generation
Electricity transmission and distribution and economic deregulation
An Example of Electric Industry Planning Using Multiattribute Assessment Tools
Energy Market Impacts on Electricity Generation Options
Sustainability Issues
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Transportation Services
Introduction and Historical Perspectives
Elements of the Transportation System
Transportation Fuels and the Fuel Cycle
Personal Vehicles
Historical perspectives
Looking forward
A Lifecycle Comparison of Road Transport Alternatives for 2020
Freight Vehicles
Interurban and Intercontinental Transport
Motorization Trends
Sustainability Issues
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Industrial Energy Usage
Introduction and Historical Perspectives
Lifecycle Analysis and Design for Sustainability
Metals Industries
Cement and Lime Industries
Chemical Industries
Forest Products and Agriculture
Waste Management Industries
Sustainability Issues
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Commercial and Residential Buildings
Introduction and Historical Perspectives
Lifecycle Analysis
Residential Building Design
Commercial Buildings
Indoor Air Quality
Sustainability Issues
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Synergistic Complex Systems
Introduction and Historical Notes
The Complex Systems View
Expert panels
Decision analysis techniques
Negotiation
How are decisions really made?
Some Case Studies
Beyond the Limits (Meadows et al., 1992)
Which World? (Hammond, 1998)
MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change: Integrated Global Climate Model
Transitional Pathways
The Challenge to Society
References
Web Sites of Interest
Problems
Choosing Among Options
Conversion Factors
List of Acronyms
Index