World of Psychology, The (Paperback)

ISBN-10: 0205768830

ISBN-13: 9780205768837

Edition: 7th 2011

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Book details

List price: $242.20
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 1/25/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 768
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.036
Language: English

Brief TOC
Introduction to Psychology
Biology and Behavior
Sensation and Perception
States of Consciousness
Learning
Memory
Cognition, Language, and Intelligence
Child Development
Adolescence and Adulthood
Motivation and Emotion
Human Sexuality and Gender
Health and Stress
Personality Theory and Assessment
Psychological Disorders
Therapies
Social Psychology
Statistical Methods
Psychology in the Workplace
DETAILED TOC
Introduction to Psychology
An Introduction to the World of Psychology
APPLY IT: Best Practices for Effective Studying
The Scientific Method
The Goals of Psychology
Exploring Psychology's Roots
Structuralism
Funtionalism
The Changing Face of Psychology
Schools of Thought in Psychology
Behaviorism
Psychoanalysis
Humanistic Psychology
Cognitive Psychology
Evolutionary Psychology
Biological (Physiological) Psychology
The Sociocultural Approach
Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism
Thinking about Theories and Research
Evaluating Theories
Evaluating Research
Descriptive Research Methods
Naturalistic and Laboratory Observation
The Case Study
Survey Research
TRY IT: Can Small Samples Really Be Representative?
The Correlational Method
The Experimental Method
Experiments and Hypothesis Testsing
Independent and Dependent Variables
Experimental and Control Groups
Sources of Bias in Experimental Research
Limitations of the Experimental Method
Participants in Psychological Research
Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research
Protecting Research Participants' Rights
The Use of Animals in Research
Psychologists at Work
Specialties in Psychology
Majoring in Psychology
Biology and Behavior
The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters
The Structure of the Neuron
Communication between Neurons
Neurotransmitters: the Neuron's Messengers
The Variety of Neurotransmitters
The Human Nervous System
Central Nervous System: the Spinal Cord
Central Nervous System: the Hindbrain
Central Nervous System: the Midbrain
Central Nervous System: the Forebrain
The Peripheral Nervous System
A Closer Look at the Brain
Components of the Cerebrum
The Cerebral Hemispheres
TRY IT: A Balancing Act
The Frontal Lobes
The Parietal Lobes
The Occipital Lobes
The Temporal Lobes
The Brain across the Life Span
Gender Differences in the Adult Brain
Discovering the Brain's Mysteries
The EEG and the Microelectrode
The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniques
The Endocrine System
Genes and Behavioral Genetics
The Mechanisms of Heredity
APPLY IT: Should You Consult a Genetic Counselor?
Behavioral Genetics
Sensation and Perception
The Process of Sensation
The Absolute and Difference Thresholds
Transduction and Adaptation
TRY IT: Sensory Adaptation
Vision
The Eye
Vision and the Brain
TRY IT: Vision
Color Vision
Theories of Color Vision
TRY IT: A Negative Afterimage
Hearing
Sound
The Ear
Theories of Hearing
Hearing Loss
The Other Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, and Balance
Smell
Taste
Touch
Pain
Balance and Movement
Principles of Perception
Perceptual Organization
Depth Perception
Motion Perception
Puzzling Perceptions
Influences on Perception
Attention
Prior Knowledge
APPLY IT: How Dangerous Is It to Talk on a Cell Phone While Driving?
TRY IT: Bottom-Up Processing
Social Perception
Unusual Perceptual Experiences
States of Consciousness
What is Consciousness?
Changing Views of Consciousness
Culture and Altered States of Consciousness
Circadian Rhythms
The Biology of Circadian Rhythms
Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms
Circadian Timing and Neurological Disorders
Sleep
Why Do We Sleep?
Types of Sleep: NREM and REM
Sleep Cycles
REM Sleep and Memory
Variations in Sleep
Sleep Deprivation
Sleep Disorders
APPLY IT: How to Get a Good Night's Sleep
Dreams
The Content of Dreams
Interpreting Dreams
Meditation and Hypnosis
Meditation
TRY IT: the Relaxation Response
Hypnosis
Psychoactive Drugs
How Drugs Affect the Brain
The Behavioral Effects of Stimulants
The Behavioral Effects of Depressants
The Behavioral Effects of Hallucinogens
Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Abuse
Drug Addiction
Herbal Remedies and Supplements
Learning
Classical Conditioning: the Original View
Pavlov and Classical Conditioning
The Process of Classical Conditioning
Changing Conditioned Responses
John Watson and Emotional Conditioning
Classical Conditioning: the Contemporary View
The Cognitive Perspective
Biological Predispositions
Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life
TRY IT: Cues in Commercials
Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Thorndike and the Law of Effect
The Process of Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
Factors Influencing Operant Conditioning
Punishment
Escape and Avoidance Learning
APPLY IT: How to Win the Battle Against Procrastination
Applications of Operant Conditioning
TRY IT: Using Behavior Modification
Cognitive Learning
Learning by Insight
Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps
Observational Learning
Learning from Media
Memory
The Structure of Human Memory
The Information-Processing Approach
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory
Long-Term Memory
APPLY IT: Improving Memory with Mnemonic Devices
The Nature of Remembering
Three Types of Memory Tasks
The Serial Position Effect
Context and Memory
Memory as Reconstruction
Memory in Everyday Life
Flashbulb and Photographic Memories
Memory and Culture
Eyewitness Testimony
The Repressed Memory Controversy
Biology and Memory
The Hippocampus and Hippocampal Region
Neuronal Changes and Memory
Hormones and Memory
Memory Loss
Forgetting
Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Forgetting
The Causes of Forgetting
TRY IT: A Penny for Your Thoughts
Improving Memory
TRY IT: Organizing for Memory Improvement
Cognition, Language, and Intelligence
Cognition
Reasoning
Imagery
Concepts
Decision Making
Problem Solving
TRY IT: Water Lily Problem
TRY IT: Duncker's Candle Problem
Artificial Intelligence
Language
The Structure of Language
Language and Thinking
Learning a Second Language
Animal Communication
Intelligence
The Nature of Intelligence
Measuring Intelligence
Requirements of Good Tests
APPLY IT: How to Build a Powerful Vocabulary
The Bell Curve
Giftedness
Mental Retardation
Learning Disabilities
Explaining Difference in Cognitive Abilities
The Heritability of Intelligence
Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?
Race and IQ
Culture, IQ, and Achievement
Beyond Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
TRY IT: Find Your EQ
Creativity
Savant Syndrome
Child Development
Developmental Psychology: Basic Issues and Methodology
Controversial Issues in Developmental Psychology
Approaches to Studying Developmental Change
Prenatal Development
The Milestones of Prenatal Development
Fetal Behavior
Negative Influences on Prenatal Development
Infancy
Reflexes and Motor Development
Sensory and Perceptual Development
Learning
Temperament
Attachment
The Father-Child Relationship
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Schemes: the Foundation of Cognitive Development
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
TRY IT: Conservation of Volume
An Evaluation of Piaget's Contribution
Other Approaches to Cognitive Development
Vygotsky's Sociocultural View
The Information-Processing Approach
Language Development
The Sequence of Language Development
Theories of Language Development
Learning to Read
Social Development
The Parents' Role in the Socialization Process
Peer Relationships
Television as a Socializing Agent
Culture and Child Development
APPLY IT: Choosing a Nonparental Care Arrangement
Adolescence and Adulthood
The Lifespan Perspective
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
The Identity Crisis
Generativity
Adolescence
Puberty
Cognitive Development
Moral Development
Parental Relationships
The Peer Group
Emerging Adulthood
TRY IT: Emerging Adulthood
Early and Middle Adulthood
Physical Changes
Intellectual Abilities
The Impact of College Attendance
Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood
APPLY IT: Where Are You in the Career Development Process?
Later Adulthood
Physical Changes in Later Adulthood
TRY IT: Stereotypes about Later Adulthood
Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthood
Alzheimer's Disease-The Most Common Dementia
Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood
Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly
Death and Dying
Motivation and Emotion
Foundations of Motivation
The Components of Motivation
Types of Motivation
Biological Approaches to Motivation
Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Approaches to Motivation
TRY IT: What is Your N Ach?
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Two Primary Drives: Thirst and Hunger
Thirst
Internal and External Hunger Cues
Explaining Variations in Body Weight
Weight Loss Strategies
Eating Disorders
Understanding Emotion
Explainin the Components of Emotions
Theories of Emotion
Emotion and the Brain
Expressing Emotion
The Range of Emotion
The Development of Facial Expressions
The Universality of Facial Expressions
TRY IT: Recognizing Basic Emotions
Cultural Rules for Displaying Emotion
Emotion as a Form of Communication
The Art and Science of Lie Detection
Experiencing Emotion
The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis
APPLY IT: the Quest for Happiness
Gender Differences in Experiencing Emotion
Emotion and Cognition
Love
Human Sexuality and Gender
Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles
Biological Sex
Psychological Gender
Early Theories of Gender Role Development
The Multidimensional Approach to Gender Roles
Gender Schema Theory
Evolutionary Theory
TRY IT: Waist-Hip Ratios
Gender Differences
Thinking about Gender Differences
Cognitive Abilities
Gender Differences in Social Behavior and Personality
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior
Influences on Sexual Attitudes and Behavior
APPLY IT: Rules for Internet Dating
Sexual Desire and Arousal
Sexual Orientation
Determinants of Sexual Orientation
Social Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbians
Gay and Lesbian Relationships
Sexual Dysfunctions
Sexual Desire Disorders
Sexual Arousal Disorders
Orgasmic and Sexual Pain Disorders
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
TRY IT: Mayo Clinic STD Quiz: What You Don't Know Can Hurt You
Bacterial STDs
Viral STDs
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
TRY IT: Knowledge About AIDS
Health and Stress
Sources of Stress
Life Events: Big and Small
Daily Hassles and Uplifts
TRY IT: Finding a Life Stress Score
Conflicts and Controllability
Stress in the Workplace
TRY IT: Sources of Stress in Your Life
Catastrophic Events
Racism and Stress
Socioeconomic Status and Stress
Responding to Stress
Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome
Lazarus's Cognitive Theory of Stress
Coping Strategies
Health and Illness
Two Approaches to Health and Illness
Coronary Heart Disease
Cancer
The Immune System and Stress
Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illness
Gender and Health
Race and Health
Lifestyle and Health
Smoking and Health
APPLY IT: Interpreting Health Information on the Internet
Alcohol Abuse
Diet
Exercise
Alternative Medicine
Personality Theory and Assessment
Psychoanalytic Theories
The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious
The Id, the Ego, and the Superego
The Psychosexual Stages of Development
Evaluating Freud's Contribution
The Neo-Freudians
Humanistic Theories
Two Humanistic Theories
Self-Esteem
TRY IT: Gauging Your Self-Esteem
Trait Theories
Early Trait Theories
TRY IT: Allport's Trait Theory
The Five-Factor Model
Origins and Stability of the Five Factors
Culture and Personality Traits
Social-Cognitive Theories
The Situation-Trait Debate
Reciprocal Determinism
Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control
Personality Assessment
Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales
Personality Inventories
APPLY IT: Put Your Best Foot Forward
Projective Tests
Psychological Disorders
Defining Psychological Disorders
What is Abnormal?
Classifying Psychological Disorders
Explaining Psychological Disorders
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia
Generalized Anxiety Disorders and Phobias
APPLY IT: Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking
TRY IT: Phobia Names
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Mood Disorders
Major Depressive Disorder
Culture, Gender, and Depression
Bipolar Disorder
Explaining Mood Disorders
Suicide and Race, Gender, and Age
Schizophrenia
Age, Gender, and Schizophrenia
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Types of Schizophrenia
Explaining Schizophrenia
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Personality Disorders
Characteristics of Personality Disorders
Types of Personality Disorders
Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Therapies
Insight Therapies
Psychodynamic Therapies
Interpersonal Therapy
Humanistic Therapies
Gestalt Therapy
Relationship Therapies
Couple Therapy
Family Therapy
Group Therapy
Behavior Therapies
Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning
Behavior Therapies Based on Other Learning Theories
TRY IT: A Possible Hierarchy of Fears
Cognitive Therapies
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
Biomedical Therapies
Drug Therapy
Psychiatric Drugs for Children and Adolescents
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Psychosurgery
Evaluating the Therapies
The Therapeutic Relationship
Choosing a Therapist
APPLY IT: Is E-Therapy Right for You?
Culturally-Sensitive and Gender-Sensitive Therapy
Social Psychology
Social Perception
Impression Formation
Attribution
Attraction
Factors Influencing Attraction
Physical Attractiveness
Romantic Attraction and Mating
TRY IT: Choosing a Life Partner
Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance
Conformity
Obedience
Compliance
Group Influence
Social Facilitation
Social Loafing
Social Roles
Attitudes and Attitude Change
Attitudes
Cognitive Dissonance
Persuasion
Prosocial Behavior
Reasons for Helping
The Bystander Effect
Aggression
Biological Factors in Aggression
Other Influences on Aggression
The Social Learning Theory of Aggression
Sexual Aggression
Prejudice and Aggression
The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination
Is Prejudice Decreasing?
APPLY IT: "Unlearning" Prejudice
Answer Key
References
Glossary
Name Index
Subject Index
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