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Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades A Constructivist Approach

ISBN-10: 0205518877

ISBN-13: 9780205518876

Edition: 3rd 2008

Authors: Cynthia Szymanski Sunal, Mary Elizabeth Haas

List price: $100.60
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Description:

Replete with lessons, best practices in teaching strategies, and the latest on the constructivist approach, this text demonstrates how to help diverse students construct important social studies concepts and skills. Packed with activities, up-to-date technology, teaching strategies, and a constructivist approach, this text demonstrates how to use developmentally appropriate strategies to help students construct important social studies ideas and skills. Building on the success of previous editions, Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades discusses flexible strategies for teaching todays diverse learner, the structure of the knowledge to be learned, how to help students reconstruct present ideas, and how to translate theory and recent research into lesson plans and units. Social Studies Methods with a constructivist approach. nbsp; Designed as a main text for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in both Elementary and Middle School social studies methods in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction
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Book details

List price: $100.60
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/22/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 544
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.760
Language: English

Preface
Meaningful Social Studies and the Student
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Social Studies in the Elementary and Middle School
Development: What is Powerful Social Studies?
Building on Diversity: Meaningful Social Studies
Education for Active Citizenship
Using Technology: Deciding Whether and When
Social Studies is Essential
Defining Social Studies
Social Studies Curriculum
Expansion: Planning Powerful Social Studies Lessons
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: From Tree to Paper
Making a Literature Connection: Using Trade Books in Social Studies
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Teaching for Meaningful Learning in Social Studies
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
How is Social Studies Best Taught in Today's Classrooms?
Development: Applying What We Know About Meaningful Learning to Social Studies Curriculum
Using Constructivist Theory in Social Studies Instruction
Using Behavioral Learning Theory in Social Studies Instruction
An Effective Strategy to Assist Students in Conceptual Change
Phases of a Learning Cycle Lesson
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Scale
Making a Literature Connection: Geography in Literature
Exploratory Introduction
Development
Expansion
Lesson Summary
Choosing Activities Appropriate to Each Phase of the Learning Cycle Lesson
Elementary Lesson Activity Choices
Middle Childhood Lesson Activity Choices
Building on Diversity: Opportunities to Include Multiple Perspectives
Student Assessment in Each Phase of the Learning Cycle
Writing Your Own Learning Cycle Lesson
The Optimal Length of Time for a Learning Cycle
Working With the Learning Cycle
Expansion: Principles of Teaching and Learning that Support the Curriculum Standards for Social Studies
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Learn Through Multiple Assessments and Evaluation
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Assessing and Evaluating Social Studies Learning
When Evaluation and Assessment Are Needed
Guiding Principles for Assessment and Evaluation
National Testing of Social Studies
Assessment and Evaluation Beyond Testing
Building on Diversity: Promoting Individual Needs
An Interview with Mark High about How He Uses Assessments to Help Improve Instruction
Modes of Assessment
Identifying Assessments Within a Lesson Plan
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Making Good Rules
Action Research and Reflection: Becoming an Effective Social Studies Teacher
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Develop Social Studies Inquiry Skills
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Development: Using Inquiry Skills to Develop Students' Social Studies Ideas
Early Inquiry Skills
Building on Diversity: Early Inquiry Skills
Social Studies Inquiry Skills
Data-Gathering Skills
Data-Organizing Skills
Data-Processing Skills
Communicating Skills
Observations, Inferences, and Hypotheses
Observations
Using Technology: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Literacy
Inferences
Hypotheses
Developing and Using Guiding Hypotheses
Attitudes and Dispositions Promoting Powerful Social Studies
Curiosity
Respect for Evidence
Reserving Judgment
Flexibility
Responsibility to Others and to the Environment
Values, Morals, and Aesthetics
Making a Literature Connection: Demonstrating Powerful Attitudes and Dispositions
Teaching Lessons in Which Students Use Integrative Thinking Skills
Critical Thinking
Problem Solving and Decision Making
Investigating
Creative Thinking
Using Technology: Fostering Inquiry Skills
Creating Conditions that Promote Student Thinking in Social Studies
Lesson Characteristics
Planning Activities to Teach Inquiry Skills
Expansion: A Learning Cycle Lesson Teaching an Inquiry Skill
Exploratory Introduction of the Skill
Lesson Development
Expansion
Assessing the Use of Inquiry Skills
Hierarchy of Inquiry Skills
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Construct Concepts
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Concept Teaching Starts with Reflection and Practice
Development: Facts as Social Studies Content
Forming Concepts
Identifying All Important Attributes of a Concept
Types of Concepts
Interrelationships Among Concepts
Building on Diversity: Defining Concepts
Differences in Complexity and Abstractness of Concepts
Making a Literature Connection: Recognizing Its Limitations
Powerful Concept Teaching
Identifying All Essential Attributes of the Social Studies Concept
Identifying Examples and Nonexamples of a Concept
Identify Students Everyday Thinking About the Concept
Using a Learning Cycle to Teach a Concept
Teaching Concepts Differs from Teaching Facts
Use Operational Definitions in Teaching Concepts
Teaching Concepts of Varying Complexity and Abstractness Differently
Teaching Interrelationships Among Concepts
Building on Diversity: Cultural Factors and Concepts
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Productive Resources
Expansion: Assessment of Concept Learning
Using Technology: Examples of Resources for Helping Students Build Concepts
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Use Inquiry to Build Generalizations
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Development: Forming Generalizations
Defining Generalizations
Distinguishing Generalizations from Facts and Concepts
Using Generalizations to Make Predictions
Making a Literature Connection: The Message Is a Generalization
Types of Generalizations
Teaching Powerful Generalizations
Building on Diversity: Using Resources to Support Learning a Generalization
Characteristics of the Exploratory Introduction Phase
Characteristics of the Lesson Development Phase
Characteristics of the Expansion Phase
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Using Technology to Investigate a Problem: Why Are Cities Built Where Rivers Come Together?
Formative Evaluation and Assessment
Inquiry Teaching and the National Standards in Social Studies
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Using Instructional Strategies That Help Students Learn
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Developing Your Social Studies Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
Teaching Dimensions That Support Meaningful Learning
Best Practices: Teaching Strategies That Support Meaningful Learning
Using Technology: Creating a Collaborative Classroom
An Interview with Mike Yell on Cooperative Learning
A Continuum of Knowledge and Instruction
Matching Instructional Strategies to Student Needs
Expository, or Direct, Instructional Methods: Lower Student Control
Guided Discovery Instructional Methods: Mixed Teacher and Student Control
Inquiry and Problem-Solving/Decision Making Instructional Methods: Greater Student Control
Matching Types of Instructional Activities To Each Phase of the Lesson
Useful Instructional Activities for the Exploratory Introduction Phase
Useful Instructional Activities for the Lesson Development Phase
Making a Literature Connection: Reading Literature
Building on Diversity: Prereading Activities
Useful Instructional Activities for the Expansion Phase
Expansion: Classroom Management Strategies for Powerful Social Studies
Advanced Planning
Giving Directions
Distributing Materials
Organizing the Beginning
Grouping Students
Using Classroom Rules
Creating Lesson Smoothness
Being a Facilitator
Assessment Considerations
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping All Students Experience Meaningful Social Studies
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Development: Meaningful Social Studies for All Students
An Interview
"Best Practices" Giving All Students Greater Control of Their Social Studies Learning
Social Studies Education for Students with Disabilities
General Instructional Strategies for Inclusive Classrooms
Using Technology: Adapting Instruction and Curriculum in the Inclusive Classroom
Factors to Be Considered in Adapting Social Studies Curricula and Instruction
Social Studies Education in a Culturally Diverse Society
Building on Diversity: Variations in Belief Systems
Sample Strategies for Multicultural Social Studies
Role Models and Relevancy
Making a Literature Connection: Role Models
Culture and Gender Differences in Student-Teacher Interactions
Helping the English Language Learner Participate in Social Studies
Recognizing and Scaffolding Language Learning
Instructional Strategies for Helping ELL Students Understand Social Studies Content
Assessment of Social Studies Learning for All Students
Using Technology: Alternative Assessment
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Relate to Individuals and Communities
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Respect for Diverse Students and for Oneself as a Teacher
The Classroom Environment Encourages Student Control Over Learning
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Sharing and Negotiation
The Curriculum Respects Diversity
Development of Self-Concept in Diverse Students
Independence and Responsibility
Jealousy
Fears
Aggressive Feelings, Bullying, and Conflict Resolution
Using Technology: Protecting Children from Predators
Friendship
Empathy and Helpful Pro-social Behaviors
Self-Esteem
Values and Moral Education in a Diverse Society
Making a Literature Connection: Supporting Development of Self-Respect
Building on Diversity: Learning from the Voices of Our Family and Community
Three Aspects of Morality
Moral Development Theories
Teaching Approaches in Values Education
Assessing How Diverse Students Relate to Individuals and Communities
Using Technology: Stimulating Discussion
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Become Citizens in a Democratic Society in an Ever More Interdependent World
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Development: Defining Citizenship in a Democratic Society
Developing Political Awareness
Citizenship and Standards
Key Concepts and Values
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Voting Is a Way to Make Decisions
Assessing Civic Education in U.S. Schools
An Interview with a Teacher: Emily Wood
Resources for Citizenship Education
Media Resources
Making a Literature Connection: Selecting a Trade Book That Stresses Social Studies
Law-Related Education
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Presidential Oath
Participating in Democracy
School-Based Community Service Projects
Participation in Student Government
Building on Diversity: The Challenges
Using Technology: Discussions That Promote Greater Understanding Through Combining and Evaluating Ideas Against Criteria
Political Participation
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Understand Local and Global Societies
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Development: Global Education: An Evolving Definition
Approaches to Global Education
The Cultural Approach to Global Education
Building on Diversity: Finding the Views of People in Other Nations
The Problems Approach to Global Education
Interdisciplinary Connections
Teaching Global Education
Resources for Teaching Global Education
Computers and the Internet
Learning Cycle Unit Plan: Teaching About War to Help Create a More Humane World
Making a Literature Connection: What Are the People of the World Like?
Book Series
Using Technology: Civics Impact of Technology Opportunities
Resources for Current Events
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Interpret History
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Development: Definition of History
History in Schools
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Learning from the Paintings and Drawings of Artists
Standards for History
Benefits of Studying History
Students and the Learning of History
Using Timelines to Develop Chronology
Resources for Teaching History
Locating and Using Historical Resources
People as Resources
Artifacts and Museums
The Community as a Resource
Documents as Resources
Diaries, Letters, and Pictures as Resources
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Skills in Picture Analysis
Visual Literacy and History
Reenactments and Drama
Biographies and Historical Literature
Building on Diversity: Pitfalls in Selecting Multicultural Books
Making a Literature Connection: Using Trade Books to Add Depth to History Units
Expanding Your Skills in History
Using Technology: An Interview with Jim Shipp
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Interpret the Earth and Its People Through Geography
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Development
An Interview with Billy Fitzhugh, A Second-Grade Teacher
Defining Geography
Standards for Geographic Education
Geography and the National Social Studies Standards
The Five Themes of Geography
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: People Change Their Environments
Geography Education Standards and the Six Elements of Geography Education
Resources for Teaching Geography
Using Technology: An Important Contributor to Learning Geography
Developing Geographic Concepts, Generalizations, and Skills
Research Findings on Geographic Education
Making a Literature Connection: Books Provide Different Cultural Perspectives
Research on Map and Globe Skills
Helping Students Learn and Use Map and Globe Skills
Shapes and Patterns
Symbols
Direction
Distance
Grid Systems
Remote Sensing and Digital Maps in the Teaching of Geography
Numbers: The Amount or Quantity on Maps, in Atlases, and in Textbooks
Reading and Maps
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Latitude and Longitude
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Helping Students Make Economic Decisions
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Development: Economic Literacy
An Interview with Nancy Braden about Teaching Economics
Defining Economics
National Social Studies Standards Related to Economics
Voluntary National Standards in Economics
Economic Concepts and Values
Microeconomic Concepts
Making a Literature Connection: Trade Books Illustrating Economic Concepts
Macroeconomic Concepts
International Economic Concepts
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Economic Interdependence
Measurement Concepts and Methods
Economic Decision-Making Skills
Economic Goals and Values
Children and the Learning of Economics
Approaches to Teaching Economics
Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Advertisements and Making Good Choices
Using Technology: Investigating How to Use a WebQuest with Your Students
Resources for Teaching Economics
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
Planning Units of Various Lengths and Formats
Exploratory Introduction
Chapter Overview
Chapter Objectives
Development: Planning the Appropriate Focus for Social Studies Units
Descriptive-Focused Units
Thinking Skills-Focused Units
Conceptual and Thinking Skills-Focused Units
Units that Integrate School Subjects
Theme Units
Issue and Problem-Solving Units
How to Choose Appropriate Topics for Integrated Units
Planning Integrated Units
Building on Diversity: Units Incorporate Diversity
Developing Integrated Units
Generating Ideas for the Topic of a Unit
Researching the Topic
Developing Focus or Guiding Questions
Identifying Special Needs Among Students and Making Accommodations
Naming the Unit
Developing Intended Learning Outcomes
Categorizing Intended Learning Outcomes
Creating an Idea Web
Developing a Rationale and Goals
Beginning the KWL Chart
Developing Learning Objectives
Developing an Assessment Plan
Developing Lesson Plans
Developing Accommodations for Technology
Making a Literature Connection: Incorporating Social Studies Trade Books into Units
Implementing the Unit
Evaluating Student Learning
Reflecting on the Unit
Using Technology: Databases and Spreadsheets
Summary
Expanding On This Chapter
References
Index