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Juvenile Delinquency A Sociological Approach

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ISBN-10: 0205499112

ISBN-13: 9780205499113

Edition: 7th 2007

Authors: Jack E. Bynum, William E. Thompson

List price: $105.60
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Description:

Taking a sociological approach, this text discusses delinquency as it relates to and emerges from the youths family, neighborhood, school, peer group, social class, and overall cultural and social environment.The authors incorporate contributions from psychologists, social workers, criminologists, and other specialists who have sought to understand, explain, control, and prevent juvenile delinquency.
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Book details

List price: $105.60
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 592
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.178
Language: English

The Author: Jack Bynum is a Professor of Sociology and Criminology who has served on the faculties of several universities. As an educator, he received numerous teaching and research awards and his publications include six books and over fifty journal articles. However, Dr. Bynum's most significant contributions to our understanding of human behavior emerged when he stepped outside the academic environment into the streets, homes, neighborhoods, churches, truck stops, athletic playing fields, and military camps to interact with groups of people not ordinarily found on a university campus. The exciting details and findings from those forays into the larger society are now in your hands.

William E. Thompson was born and raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and was the first member of his family to receive a high school diploma. He received his bachelor's degree from Northeastern State University, a master's degree from Missouri State University, and a Ph.D. from Oklahoma State University. Professor Thompson has authored and coauthored more than 30 articles in professional journals, including several reprinted in sociology textbooks and readers. He has coauthored a textbook on juvenile delinquency. Thompson also is the author of The Glass House, a nonfiction account of his mother's two year battle with cancer and the lessons about life and living learned from her death and dying.Professor Thompson began his college teaching career at the University of Tulsa. He spent the next ten years at Emporia State University in Emporia, Kansas. He is currently a professor of sociology and criminal justice and Director of Mayo College, a residential learning community for first-year students, at Texas A&M University - Commerce. He has also taught in the British Studies Program at Kings College, University of London. In 1993 Thompson received an Outstanding Teaching Award from the Texas Association of College Teachers, and in 1994 he won the Distinguished Faculty Award for Research and Teaching at Texas A&M University - Commerce. For fun and relaxation Thompson plays the drums.

Preface
Conformity, Deviance, and Juvenile Delinquency
Introduction: The Sociological Perspective and Focus on Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile Delinquency: The Act, the Actor, and the Audience
Reading Objectives
Introduction
What Is Juvenile Delinquency?
Who Is a Juvenile?
What Is Delinquency?
The Legal Definition
The Role Definition
Controversial Issue: "Child or Adult?"
The Societal Response Definition
An Integrated Definition of Delinquency
Cross-Cultural Focus: The Cultural and Legal Definitions of "Child" and "Juvenile Offender" in Other Nations
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
A Sociological Overview: Society, Norms, Conformity, and Deviant Behavior
Reading Objectives
Introduction
The Sociological Perspective
The Social Nature of Humans
The Social Imperative
Social Interaction
Social Interdependence
Social Organization
Norms
Sources of Norms
Social Consensus
Social Conflict
Folkways and Mores
Folkways
Mores
Normative Behavior: Conformity
Deviant Behavior: Nonconformity
Negative Aspects of Deviance
Cross-Cultural Focus: Conformity, Deviance, and Delinquency among Native Americans
Positive Aspects of Deviance
Juvenile Delinquency
Concept Application: "Deviance or Conformity?"
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
The Dimensions of the Delinquency Problem
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Juvenile Delinquency Data
Validity and Reliability
Official Sources of Delinquency Information
FBI Uniform Crime Reports
Juvenile Court Statistics
Methodology
Findings
The Composite Delinquent Profile: Typical or Stereotypical?
Limitations of Official Delinquency Data
Unofficial Sources of Delinquency Information
Self-Report Studies
Concept Application: "Undetected and Unreported Delinquency: The Missing Statistics"
Victimization Surveys
Controversial Issue: Juvenile Violence: Guns and the U.S. Constitution
The Magnitude and Trends of Juvenile Delinquency
Addendum: A Balanced Perspective on Youth
Cross-Cultural Focus: Juvenile Delinquency in Russia
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
Introduction: Theory and the Etiology of Juvenile Delinquency
Biological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency
Reading Objectives
Introduction
The Link between Biology and Behavior: Myths and Folklore
The Classical School of Criminological Thought
The Positive School of Criminology
Twentieth-Century Constitutional Typologies
The Continuing Search for the Biological Connection
Concept Application: "An Ugly Girl"
Gender
Race and Ethnicity
Age
Genetic Crime Causation: The XYY Hypothesis
Diet and Deviant Behavior
Cross-Cultural Focus: The Study of Twins and Adopted Children in Scandinavia
Brain Malfunctions
Sociobiological Explanations
Controversial Issue: Heredity Versus Environment in Deviant and Delinquent Behavior
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency
Reading Objectives
Introduction
The Psychogenic Approach
The Discovery of the Unconscious
The Formation of Personality
Freudian Theory as an Explanation of Crime and Delinquency
Psychoanalysis
Projective Tests
The Rorschach Ink-Blot Test
Projective Tests and Homicidal Children
Delinquent Acts as Symptoms
Conduct Disorders
Other Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency
Early Theories of Feeblemindedness
Controversial Issues: The Debate over Television Violence, Childhood Personality Development, and Criminal Behavior
Neurological Abnormalities
The Flawed Personality
Adolescent Identity Crisis
Insufficient Moral Development
Predictors of Youth Violence
Criticisms and Limitations of the Psychogenic Approach
Critique of Theoretical Assumptions and Concepts
Critique of Research Methodology
Critique of Psychogenic Applications to Crime and Delinquency
Concept Application: The Psychological and Social Impacts on Victims of Crime and Delinquency
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Strain and Cultural Transmission Theories
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Theory
Social Strain Theories
Durkheim's Concept of Anomie
Merton's Theory of Anomie
Cohen's "Delinquent Boys"
Cloward and Ohlin's "Delinquency and Opportunity"
Contributions of Social Strain Theories
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Strain Theories
Agnew's General Strain Theory
Controversial Issue: Social Structure as a Proposed Cause of Urban Crime and Delinquency
Cultural Transmission Theories
Sellin's Theory of Culture Conflict
Burgess' Concentric Zone Theory
Shaw and McKay's "High Delinquency Areas"
Miller's Focus on Lower Class Culture
Contributions of Cultural Transmission Theories
Criticisms and Limitations of Cultural Transmission Theories
Concept Application: Searching for Causal Explanations of Contemporary School Shootings
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Learning and Social Control Theories
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Social Learning Theories
Sutherland and Cressey's Theory of Differential Assocition
Glaser's Concept of Differential Identification
Akers's Theory of Differential Reinforcement
Contributions of Social Learning Theories
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Learning Theories
Concept Application: Grand Theft-Auto
Social Control Theories
Reckless' Containment Theory
Sykes and Matza's Techniques of Neutralization
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
Contributions of Social Control Theories
Controversial Issue: Religiosity and Juvenile Delinquency
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Control Theories
Cross-Cultural Focus: Criminality among the Children of Immigrants in Western Europe
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Labeling and Radical Theories
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Labeling Theories
Early Contributions to Labeling Theory
Tannenbaum's Concept of "Tagging"
Lemert's Primary and Secondary Deviance
Becker's Developmental Career Model
Contributions of Labeling Theory
Criticisms and Limitations of Labeling Theory
Radical Theories
The Marxian Heritage
Quinney's Social Reality of Crime and Delinquency
Greenberg's Focus on Adolescent Frustration
Schwendingers's Instrumental Theory
Contributions of Radical Theories
Criticisms and Limitations of Radical Theories
Concept Application: Power Control Theory: Females in a Male World
An Overview of the Sociological Explanations
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
The Future for Causal Explanations of Delinquency: The Ongoing Process of Theory Building
Reading Objectives
Introduction: A Review of Past Theory Building for Explaining Juvenile Delinquency
A Renewed Examination of Delinquency Motivation: "Crime Is Fun!"
Making Decisions for Delinquency: Rational Choice Theory
Concept Application: The Jackass Scrapbooks
The Punishment Response: Deterrence Theory
Evaluation of Rational Choice and Deterrence Theories
Back to the Future: The Prospects and Direction for New Theory Building
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Juvenile Delinquency in a Social Context
Introduction: Collective Behavior and Social Groupings
The Family and Juvenile Delinquency
Reading Objectives
Introduction
The Changing Role of the Family
Increasing Importance of the Nuclear Family and the Creation of "Adolescence"
The Family as an Agent of Socialization
Working Mothers and Juvenile Delinquency
Controversial Issue: Latchkey Children: Independence or Neglect?
Other Family Variables and Juvenile Delinquency
Social Class
Family Size and Birth Order
Family Interaction
Parental Discipline
Single-Parent Families and Delinquency
The Family and Delinquency Prevention
Concept Application: The Role of the Family in Preventing Delinquency
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Schools and Delinquency
Reading Objectives
Introduction
The School as an Arena
Schools and the Socialization Process
Juvenile Delinquency and the School Experience
Schools as a Screening Device
Cross-Cultural Focus: Self-Concept and Delinquency among Chinese Schoolchildren
Schools as "Combat Zones"
Controversial Issue: "Dealing with the Problem of Truancy"
Vandalism and Destruction
Violence and Personal Attacks
Concept Application: Bullying and School Violence
School Safety and "Zero Tolerance"
School as Bureaucracy
Schools and Delinquency Prevention
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
The Youth Subculture
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Culture, Subcultures, and Countercultures
The Creation of a Youth Subculture
Cross-Cultural Focus: Japanese Youth Subculture, Skinheads, and Counterculture
Role of the Youth Subculture
Distinctive Elements of the Youth Subculture
Youth Values
Concept Application: The American Youth Subculture: Youth Values in the 21st Century
Dress, Grooming, and Fads
Tatoos
Mass Media
Language
Controversial Issue: Censoring Rock Music
The Youth Subculture and Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile Runaways
Juvenile Prostitution
Juveniles and Drugs
Juveniles and Sex
Youth Countercultures and Delinquency
Teenage Satanic Groups
Youth Hate Groups
The Youth Subculture and Delinquency Prevention
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Juvenile Gangs and Delinquent Behavior
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Predatory Youths: A National Alarm
The Solitary Delinquent
Group Delinquency
The Play Group
The Juvenile Gan
What Is a Gang?
History of Youth Gangs
Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United States
Number of Gangs and Members
Locale
The Motives for Gang Membership
Concept Application: The Profit Motive: Group Shoplifting and "The Swarm"
Initiation Rituals
Gang Organization
The Near Group
Gang Graffiti, Slanguage, and Symbols
Composition of Gang Membership
Social Class
Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangs
Female Participation in Delinquent Gangs
Gang Violence
Concept Application: "The Weapon of Choice: The Dogs of War"
Drug Franchises and Gang Warfare
Gang Rape
Dyads and Triads
Explanatory Theories of Gang Formation and Behavior: A Summary and Synthesis
Cross-Cultural Focus: Urban Youth Gangs in Russia
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Social Control: The Juvenile Justice System
Introduction: Elements of Social Control
Juveniles and the Police
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Juvenile Encounters with Police
Policing Juveniles
Law Enforcement Role
Crime Prevention Role
Cross-Cultural Focus: Policing Juveniles in Great Britain
Police Discretion in Handling Juveniles
Legal Factors
Extralegal Factors
Police and Due Process
Police, Community Policing, and Delinquency Prevention
Controversial Issue: Targeting Serious Habitual Offenders: Delinquency Prevention or Police Harassment?
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Juvenile Court
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Historical Background of the Juvenile Court
Cross-Cultural Focus: Development of the Juvenile Court in Canada
The Child Savers Movement
The Juvenile Court
The Juvenile Court and Due Process
Juvenile Court Procedures
Intake
Adjudication
Disposition
The Role of Attorneys in Juvenile Court
The District Attorney
The Defense Attorney
Controversial Issue: The Use of Attorneys in the Juvenile Court
Criticisms of the Juvenile Court
The Multifaceted JuveniLe Court
The Future of the Juvenile Court
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Supreme Court Rulings Cited
Juvenile Corrections
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Social Control and Deterrence Theory
Voluntary Social Control
Cross-Cultural Focus: The Caning of an American Youth in Singapore: Justice or Abuse?
Informal Social Control
Formal Social Control
Juvenile Probation
Restitution and "Restorative Justice"
Juvenile Placement
Juvenile Aftercare
Controversial Issue: Institutionalization versus Community Treatment
Waiver: Remanding Juveniles to Adult Courts
Juveniles in Adult Jails and Prisons
Capital Punishment for Juveniles and Roper v. Simmons
Controversial Issue: Should Juveniles Be Held in Adult Jails and Prisons?
Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversion
House Arrest
Youth Service Bureaus
Scared Straight!
S.H.A.P.E.U.P.
VisionQuest
Juvenile Boot Camps
Other Diversion Programs
Evaluation of Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversion
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Strategies for Dealing with Juvenile Delinquency
Introduction: Approaching Treatment and Prevention in a Social Context
Treatment and Prevention Strategies
Reading Objectives
Introduction
Treatment Ideology and Delinquency Treatment Programs
Controversial Issue: Applying the Medical Model in the Treatment of Delinquency
Behavior Modification
Reality Therapy
Group and Individual Counseling and Therapy
Prevention Ideology and Delinquency Prevention Programs
Early Identification
Predelinquents and Early Intervention
Sociological Approaches to Delinquency Treatment and Prevention
Cross-Cultural Focus: Delinquency Prevention in Japan
The Chicago Area Project
The Mid-City Project
Mobilization for Youth
Minnesota Youth Advocate Program/Urban League
Neighborhood Youth Corps and Job Training
The Highfields Project
The Provo Experiment
The Millcreek Youth Correctional Facility
The Paint Creek Youth Center
Project New Pride
Mentoring Programs
Other Programs
Mobilizing the Community to Prevent Delinquency
Crimestoppers and Hotlines
Neighborhood Watch and Youth Crime Watch
Guardian Angels
S.H.O.D.I.
Gang Intervention and Prevention Programs
Evaluation of Delinquency Treatment and Prevention Strategies
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Rethinking the Delinquency Problem
Reading Objectives
Introduction
The Social Nature of Juvenile Delinquency
Eliminating the Marginal Status of Juveniles
Rites of Passage
Meaningful Social Participation
Concept Application: Meaningful Social Participation for Youths
Standardization or Elimination of Juvenile Codes
Decriminalization of Status Offenses
Revision of the Juvenile Court
Limited Jurisdiction
Due Process
Professional Judges and Court Personnel
Dispositional Alternatives
Other Revisions
Controversial Issue: Should Juvenile Courts Be Abolished?
Modification of Juvenile Corrections
Strengthening the Family
Changing the Educational System
Redefining Juvenile Delinquency
Summary
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussion
References
Glossary
Name Index
Subject Index