Assessing and Guiding Young Children's Development and Learning

ISBN-10: 0205497187

ISBN-13: 9780205497188

Edition: 4th 2007

Authors: Oralie McAfee, Deborah J. Leong

List price: $78.67
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Book details

List price: $78.67
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/7/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 304
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.386
Language: English

About the Authors
Professionalism in Assessment
Assessment in Early Childhood: A Work in Progress
Assessment Vocabulary
Expectations of Teachers
Professional Organizations
Parents, Policy Makers, and the General Public
Other Professionals
Factors Contributing to Current Practices in Assessment
Mandated Testing and Assessment
The Diversity of Children and Families
Concepts about Children's Development and Learning
Limitations and Inadequacies of Standardized Testing
Professional Responsibility
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Legal, Ethical, and Professional Responsibilities in Assessment
Know Federal and State Laws That Mandate Assessment
No Child Left Behind
Head Start and Other Federally Funded Prekindergarten Programs
State Laws and Regulations
Protect Child and Family Rights
The Right to Equal Protection under the Law
The Right to Due Process
The Right to Privacy
Major Legislation
Be Sensitive to Individual Differences
Children with Special Needs
Children at Risk
Children Who Need Challenge
Inclusive Education
Be Sensitive to Linguistic, Social, and Cultural Differences
Cultural Differences That May Influence Assessment
Implications for Assessment
Be Fair and Impartial
Be as Objective as Possible
Ensure the Accuracy and Trustworthiness of Assessment Information
Use Assessment Results in Appropriate Ways
Know the Limitations of Each Method of Assessment, and Guard against Overreliance on Any One
Use Assessment Results for the Intended Purposes
Know and Abide by State, School District, and Center Policies
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Assessing and Teaching
Why, What, and When to Assess
Assessment Decisions
Why Assess?
To Monitor Children's Development and Learning
To Guide Classroom Planning and Decision Making
To Identify Children Who Might Benefit from Special Help
To Report to and Communicate with Others
What to Assess?
Major Child Growth and Development Domains
Expected Outcomes of the Program for Individual Children
Unique Patterns of Development, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interests
Problems or Concerns about a Particular Child or Group
Practical Considerations
When to Assess?
Before the School Year Starts
Assess to Fulfill Requirements
Assess Day by Day
Assess Periodically
Assess Before and After a Concentrated Emphasis
Assess to Get Information about a Specific Problem or Concern
Some Final Thoughts
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Documenting: Collecting Information
Multiple Windows
Sources of Information
The Child as a Source of Information
Parents and Other Adults as a Source of Information
Records as a Source of Information
Methods of Collecting Information
Observe Children Systematically
Elicit Responses from Children
Collect Work Products from Classroom Activities
Elicit Information from Parents
Contexts for Assessment
Characteristics of the Context
Examples of Contexts for Assessment
Choosing the Appropriate Assessment Window
Identify the Behavior to Be Assessed
Use Authentic Assessment Measures or Windows
Maximize the Chances of Seeing a Behavior
Use Multiple Assessment Measures or Windows
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Documenting: Recording Information
Description and Examples of Recording Procedures
Procedures That Describe
Procedures That Count or Tally
Procedures That Rate or Rank
Other Procedures
Selecting a Recording Procedure
Purpose of the Assessment
What Is Being Assessed
Amount of Detail Needed
Practical Considerations
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Compiling and Summarizing Information
Description and Definition
Basic Approaches to Portfolio Building
Selection of Content
Organization of Content
Relationship of Portfolios to Other Types of Assessment
Increasing the Information in Each Portfolio Item
The Place of Technology
Group and Individual Profiles and Summaries
Published Summary Forms
Description and Definition of Group Profiles
Purposes of Group Profiles
Guides for Selecting and Organizing Content of Group Profiles
Description and Definition of Individual Profiles
Purposes of Individual Profiles
Guides for Selecting and Organizing Content of Individual Profiles
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Interpreting Assessment Information
Ensure the Authenticity and Trustworthiness of the Data
To Determine Progress, Compare Performance at Two or More Points in Time
Work from Compilations and Summaries
Look for Patterns, Including Patterns of Errors, Rather Than Isolated Instances
Consider a Child's or a Group's Unique and Individual Patterns of Development, Temperament, Interests, and Dispositions
Identify Areas of Concern
Interpret and Understand the Meaning of Assessment Findings
Generate Multiple Hypotheses about Possible Meanings, but Hold Them Tentatively
Analyze Performance as a Band or Interval within Which a Child Is Functioning
Consider the Influence of the Total Sociocultural Context on Children's Actions
Compare Evidence to Developmental or Curriculum Expectations
Analyze Information for Clues to Learning Processes and Strategies
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Using Assessment Information
Planning Strategies
Plan and Organize the Intended Changes
Refer to Assessment Information as You Plan
Allow Time for Reflection
Plan Ways to Meet Children's Assessed Needs
Deliberately Incorporate the Wealth of Information, Resources, and Strategies Available to Support Young Children's Learning
Plan for and with Other People in the Classroom
Balance What You Might Like to Do with What Is Possible
Individual and Group Strategies
For One or Two Children
For Several Children
Mixed-Age Classes
For the Entire Group
Curriculum and Classroom Modification Strategies
Allocate Time and Space in Different Ways to Achieve Different Results
Select and Arrange Materials in Response to Assessment Results
Use Any Apparent Sequence
Look at the Need for Possible Change in Procedures
Rethink and Restructure to Meet Children "Where They Are"
Examples of Using Assessment Information to Guide Instruction
Small Muscle/Fine Motor Development
Early Literacy Development
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Organizing for Assessment
Integrating Assessment and Teaching
General Guidelines
Developing a Plan
Considerations in Planning for Assessment
Sample Assessment Plans
Using the Plan
Organizing Files and Forms
Notebooks, Files, and Portfolios
Other Aids
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
The Classroom and Beyond
Standardized Tests: What Early Childhood Teachers Should Know
The Difference between an Assessment That Has Standardized Procedures and a Standardized Test
Definition of a Standardized Test
Limitations and Inadequacies of Standardized Testing
Technical and Educational Inadequacies
Overuse and Misuse
Unsuitability for the Population
Undue Influence on Education
Types of Standardized Tests
Standardized Achievement Tests
Standardized Aptitude Tests
Standardized Screening and Diagnostic Tests
The Early Childhood Teacher's Role in Standardized Testing
How to Find Out if a Standardized Test Is Reliable and Valid
How to Administer a Standardized Test
How to Explain Different Types of Test Scores
How to Interpret Standardized Test Results
Standardized Instruments Used to Measure Opportunities to Learn
Finding Out More about Standardized Tests
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Communicating and Collaborating Using Assessment Processes and Results
Communicating with Children
Communicating with Parents
Before Reporting
Ways to Report
Communicating and Collaborating with Other Professionals
Communication within the School or Center
Communication with Other Schools and Centers
Communication and Collaboration in Specialized Services
Professional and Personal Development and Learning
Professional Development and Learning
Personal Development and Learning
For Personal Reflection
For Further Study and Discussion
Suggested Readings
Assessment and Analysis Guides
Developmental Red Flags for Children Ages 3 to 5
Name Index
Subject Index
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