Criminological Theories Introduction, Evaluation, and Application

ISBN-10: 0199844488

ISBN-13: 9780199844487

Edition: 6th 2013

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With a focus on empirical evaluation and practical application, Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application, Sixth Edition, helps students draw connections between criminological theory and practical applications. In clear, engaging language, authors Ronald L. Akers and Christine S. Sellers explore each principal criminological theory using a three-part analysis: * An Introduction presents a succinct exposition of the theory's central concepts, assertions, and hypotheses. * Next, an Evaluation provides a detailed critique of the theory, with an emphasis on empirical validity. * Finally, an Application extends the evaluation to determine each theory's relevance, as well as its potential for controlling and preventing crime and delinquency.Companion Website.
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Book details

List price: $91.95
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 11/9/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Ronald L. Akers is professor of criminology and sociology in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society, University of Florida. He is the author of Crime, Law and Sanctions: Theoretical Perspectives, Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach, Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance, and Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application.

Introduction to Criminological Theory
What Is Theory?
Types of Criminological Theories
Theories of Making and Enforcing Criminal Law
Theories of Criminal and Deviant Behavior
Criteria for Evaluating Theory
Logical Consistency, Scope, and Parsimony
Empirical Validity
Usefulness and Policy Implications
Theory and Ideology
Emphasis on Empirical Validity and Application of Theories
Deterrence and Rational Choice Theories
Classical Criminology and the Deterrence Doctrine
Deterrence: Certainty, Severity, and Celerity of Punishment
Modern Deterrence Theory
Studies of Deterrence
Do Criminal Sanctions Deter?
Deterrence and Experiential Effects
Modifications and Expansions of Deterrence Concepts
Rational Choice Theory
Deterrence and Expected Utility
Research on Rational Choice Theory
Deterrence and Criminal Justice Policy
Scared Straight, Shock Incarceration, and Boot Camps
Routine Activities Theory
Felson and Cohen: Offenders, Targets, and Guardians
Empirical Validity of Routine Activities Theory
Routine Crime Prevention and Precautions
Biological and Biosocial Theories
Lombroso and Early Biological Theories
Lombroso's Theory of the Born Criminal
The Criminal as Biologically Inferior
Recognizing the Inadequacies of Early Biological Theories
Modern Biological and Biosocial Theories of Crime and Delinquency: Interaction of Biological and Environmental Variables
Neurobiological Approaches to Crime
Genetically Transmitted Criminal Susceptibility: Behavioral and Molecula Genetics
Evolutionary Psychology and Criminality
Empirical Validity of Biological Theories of Criminal Behavior
Policy Implications of Biological Theories
Psychological Theories
Psychoanalytic Theory
Personality Theory
Personality Traits
The Psychopathic Personality
The Five-Factor Model
Psychological Counseling in Delinquency Prevention and Treatment
Social Learning Theory
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
Akers's Social Learning Theory
Development of the Theory
The Central Concepts and Propositions of Social Learning Theory
The Social Learning Process: Sequence and Feedback Effects
Social Structure and Social Learning
Empirical Validity of Social Learning Theory
Research on Relationship of Criminal and Delinquent Behavior to Social Learning Variables
Research on Social Learning in the Family and Delinquency
Research on Peers and Group Contexts in Crime and Delinquency
Research on Social Structure and Social Learning
Applications of Social Learning Theory in Prevention and Treatment Programs
Highfields and Essexfield
The Pinehills Experiment
The Teaching Family Model
Oregon Social Learning Center (OSLC)
Andrews's Experiments and Model of Treatment and Prevention
Meta-Analyses of Cognitive-Behavioral Programs
Other Prevention Programs
Social Bonding and Control Theories
Early Control Theories
Reiss's and Nye's Theories of Internal and External Controls
Reckless's Containment Theory
Sykes and Matza: Techniques of Neutralization and Drift
Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory
The Central Concepts and Propositions of Social Bonding Theory
Empirical Validity of Social Bonding Theory
Gottfredson and Hirschi: Self-Control Theory
Low Self-Control as the Cause of Criminal Behavior
What Is the Relationship Between Self-Control Theory and Social Bonding Theory?
Testability of Self-Control Theory
Research Indirectly and Directly Testing Self-Control Theory
Hirschi�s Social Bonding Modifications of Self-Control Theory
Policy Implications of Control Theories
Social Bonding Elements in the Social Development Model
Policy Implications of Self-Control Theory
Labeling and Reintegrative Shaming Theory
Labeling as a Process of Symbolic Social Interaction
The Label as an Independent Variable in Crime and Deviance
Empirical Evidence on Labeling Theory
Implications of Labeling Theory: Juvenile Diversion Programs
Braithwaite's Reintegrative Shaming Theory
Reintegrative Shaming, Restorative Justice, and Faith-Based Programs
Applications of Restorative Justice
Theory and Philosophy of Restorative Justice: Reintegration and Rehabilitation
Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Programs
The Past and Future of Labeling Theory
Social Disorganization Theory: Social Structure, Communities, and Crime
Early Statistical Studies of Crime
Social Disorganization and the Urban Ecology of Crime and Delinquency
Research on Social Structure and Crime Rates
Restatements and Research on Social Disorganization Theory
Community Projects and Policies Based on Theories of Social Disorganization
The Chicago Area Projects
Other Policy Implications of Social Disorganization Theory
Anomie and Strain Theories
Classic Anomie/Strain Theories
Merton's Theory of Social Structure and Anomie
Cohen: Status Deprivation and the Delinquent Subculture
Cloward and Ohlin: Differential Opportunity and Delinquent Subcultures
Miller: Focal Concerns of Lower Class Culture
Research on Classic Anomie/Strain Theories
Are Crime and Delinquency Concentrated Among Lower Class and Minority Individuals?
Gangs and Delinquent Subcultures
School Dropout and Delinquency
Perceived Discrepancy Between Aspirations and Expectations
Contemporary Anomie/Strain Theories
Messner and Rosenfeld's Institutional-Anomie Theory
Agnew's General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency
Programs Based on Anomie and Subcultural Theories
The Boston Mid-City Project
Mobilization for Youth
Policy Implications of Contemporary Anomie/Strain Theories
Conflict Theory
Law Is a Type of Social Control
Consensus and Functionalist Theories of Law
Conflict Theory of Law and Criminal Justice
Empirical Validity of Consensus and Conflict Theories of Law and Criminal Justice
Research on Legislation
Research on Public Opinion on Crime and Criminal Justice
Research on Social Threat
Research on Extralegal Variables in Criminal Justice Decision Making
Research on Racial Profiling
Conflict Theory of Criminal Behavior
Empirical Validity of Conflict Theory of Criminal Behavior
Policy Implications of Conflict Theory
Marxist Theories
Marxist Theory
Marxist Theory of Law and Criminal Justice
Instrumentalist and Structuralist Marxism
Empirical Adequacy of Marxist Theory of Law and Justice
Marxist Theory of Crime
Bonger: Early Marxist Theory of Crime
Quinney: Class, State, and Crime
Modifications of Marxist Theory
Is Crime the Result of a Capitalist Economy?
Policy Implications of Marxist Theory
Radical and Critical Theories
Henry and Milovanovic: Constitutive Criminology
Left Realism
Cultural Criminology
Peacemaking Criminology
Feminist Theories
Feminist Theories of Criminal Justice
Empirical Validity of Feminist Theories of Criminal Justice
Feminist Theories of Crime
Women's Liberation and Female Crime
Patriarchal Society and Crime
Masculinities and Structured Action
Gendered Pathways and Gendered Contexts
Empirical Validity of Feminist Theories of Criminal Behavior
Policy Implications of Feminist Theories
Integrating Criminological Theories
Theory Competition Versus Theory Integration
Varieties of Theoretical Integration in Criminology
Conceptual Integration
Akers: Integration by Conceptual Absorption
Cullen and Colvin: Social Support and Coercion
Propositional Integration
Elliott's Integrative Model of Strain, Bonding, and Learning
Krohn�s Network Analysis
Thornberry's Interactional Theory
Tittle's Control Balance Theory
Life-Course Criminology
How Successful Has Theoretical Integration Been in Criminology?
Author Index
Subject Index
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