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Chemistry for the Biosciences The Essential Concepts

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ISBN-10: 0199280975

ISBN-13: 9780199280971

Edition: 2006

Authors: Tony Bradshaw, Jonathan Crowe, Paul Monk

List price: $54.95
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Description:

Leading students through the essential concepts that are central to understanding biological systems, this text uses everyday examples and analogies to build their confidence in an often daunting subject. By focusing on the key themes that unify the subject, it shows how integral chemistry is to the biosciences.
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Book details

List price: $54.95
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/20/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 594
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.882
Language: English

Tony Bradshaw is Head of Biomedical and Biological Sciences at the School of Life Sciences at Oxford Brookes University.

Welcome to the book
Acknowledgements
Periodic table of the elements
Introduction: why bother with chemistry?
Science: revealing our world
I'm a biologist: why bother with chemistry?
The essential concepts
The language of chemistry
Units: making sense of numbers
Symbols
Atoms: the foundations of life
The chemical elements
Atomic composition
Protons, electrons, and electrical charge
Identifying the composition of an atom: atomic number and mass number
The formation of ions
Isotopes: varying the number of neutrons
Relative abundances and atomic mass
Protons and chemical identity
Atomic structure
Atomic orbitals
The energy of atoms
Orbitals and energy levels
Filling up orbitals - the building-up principle
The energy of subshells
Moving between orbitals: electron excitation
Energy levels and quantization
Valence shells and valence electrons
The periodic table
The variety of life: not so varied after all?
Compounds and chemical bonding: bringing atoms together
The formation of compounds
The chemical bond: bridging the gap between atoms
Which electron configuration is most stable?
Valence shells and Lewis dot symbols
Lone pairs of electrons
Bond formation: redistributing valence electrons
The ionic bond: transferring electrons
Ionic bonding and full shells: how many electrons are transferred?
The chemical formula
The covalent bond: sharing electrons
Covalent compounds and electrical charge
The molecular formula: identifying the components of a covalent compound
Covalent bonding and the distribution of electrons
Molecular orbitals
Sigma and pi orbitals
The formation of multiple bonds
Valency and number of bonds
Sharing one pair of electrons: the single bond
Sharing two pairs of electrons: the double bond
Sharing three pairs of electrons: the triple bond
Dative bonding: covalent bonding with a twist
Aromatic compounds and conjugated bonds
Polyatomic compounds
Ionic versus covalent bonding
Electronegativity: how easily can electrons be transferred?
Ionic and covalent bonding in nature: which is most prevalent?
Molecular forces: holding it all together
Chemical bonding versus non-covalent forces
Intramolecular versus intermolecular forces
The significance of non-covalent forces
The key characteristics of non-covalent forces
Polarity and polarization
How strongly is a bond polarized?
Non-polar covalent bonds
Polar bonds in non-polar molecules
The key non-covalent forces
Dispersion forces
Hydrophobic forces, and dispersion forces in biological systems
Permanent dipolar interactions
Hydrogen bonds
Ionic forces
Non-covalent forces: strength in numbers
Breaking intermolecular forces: the three states
Changing states
The transition between states
The impact of non-covalent interactions on melting and boiling points
Organic compounds 1: the framework of life
Organic chemistry
Carbon: its defining features
The nature of organic compounds
The framework of organic compounds
Representing chemical structures: the structural formula
The alkanes: the backbone of organic chemistry
The shape of organic compounds
Physical properties of the alkanes
Chemical properties of the alkanes
Functional groups and the carbon framework
The double bond
Physical properties of alkenes
Adding functional groups to the carbon framework
Alkyl groups
The aryl group: a special hydrocarbon group
Functional groups and the properties of organic compounds
Organic compounds 2: adding function to the framework of life
Organic compounds with oxygen-based functional groups
The alcohols: the hydroxyl group
The ethers: the alkoxy group
The aldehydes and ketones: the carbonyl group
The carboxylic acids: combining the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups
The esters: a modified carboxyl group
Organic compounds and nitrogen-based functional groups
The amines: the amino group
The amides: the amide group
Other functional groups
The thiols and the sulfur-based functional group
The haloalkanes and the halogen-based functional group
Biological macromolecules: providing life's Infrastructure
Amino acids and proteins
The composition of amino acids
Formation of polypeptides
Carbohydrates
The composition of monosaccharides
Lipids
Steroids
Triacylglycerols
Glycerophospholipids
Nucleic acids
Nucleotides and their composition
Formation of nucleic acids
The shape of nucleic acids
Nucleic acids: nature's energy stores
Molecular shape and structure 1: from atoms to small molecules
The link between structure and function
Hierarchies of structure
The shape of small molecules
Bond lengths
Bond angles
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR)
VSEPR theory and the shape of molecules with multiple bonds
Hybridization and shape
Hybridizing different numbers of orbitals
Bond rotation and conformation
Conformation versus configuration
Molecular shape and structure 2: the shape of large molecules
Constructing larger molecules
The geometry of joined atoms
The sequence of monomers within a polymer
Bonding between monomers
The shape of larger molecules
Building up structural complexity: a structural hierarchy
The hierarchy of biological structure: an overview
Maintaining shape, and allowing flexibility
The importance of structural flexibility: muscle contraction
The importance of structural flexibility: enzymes
Chemical analysis 1: how do we know what is there?
What is chemical analysis?
How do we separate out what is there?
Filtration
Chromatography
Electrophoresis
How do we determine what is there?
Measuring mass: mass spectrometry
Building up the picture: spectroscopic techniques
Spectroscopy and electromagnetic radiation
Characterizing the carbon framework: nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Identifying functional groups: infrared spectroscopy
Establishing 3-D structure: X-ray crystallography
Chemical analysis 2: how do we know how much is there?
The mole
Connecting molar quantities to mass
Concentrations
Calculating the number of moles of substance in a sample of solution
Preparing a solution of known concentration
Calculating the concentration of a solution
Changing the concentration: solutions and dilutions
Measuring concentrations
UV-visible spectrophotometry
Titrations
Electrochemical sensors
Isomerism: generating chemical variety
Isomers
Structural isomers
Distinguishing structural isomers
Structural isomerism and the shape of the carbon framework
Structural isomerism and the positioning of functional groups
Structural isomerism: unifying chemical families
Stereoisomers
Geometric isomers
Enantiomers
Chirality
How do we distinguish one enantiomer from its mirror image?
Chirality in biological systems
The chemistry of isomers
The biological chemistry of enantiomers
The impact of chirality on medicinal chemistry
Chemical reactions: bringing molecules to life
What is a chemical reaction?
The stoichiometry of chemical reactions
The molecular basis of chemical reactions
How do valence electrons move during chemical reactions?
Depicting the movement of electrons
Heterolytic reactions
Oxidation and reduction
Heterolytic reactions and the polarization of bonds
Homolytic reactions
Initiation
Propagation
Termination
Reaction mechanisms
Transition states and intermediates
Substitution
Addition
Elimination
Condensation
Biochemical reactions: from food to energy
Energy: what makes reactions go?
What is energy?
Kinetic energy
Potential energy
Chemical energy
Energy transfer
The transfer of energy as work
The transfer of energy as heat
Heat versus temperature
The spontaneous transfer of heat
Energy transfer and chemical reactions
How can we determine the enthalpy change for a reaction?
Depicting enthalpy changes: the energy diagram
Enthalpy changes and the stability of chemical compounds
Entropy: the spread of energy as the engine of change
The link between entropy and energy
The overall entropy change in a universe
Gibbs free energy: the driving force of chemical reactions
The Gibbs free energy of spontaneous reactions
Gibbs free energy and cell metabolism
Kinetics: what affects the speed of a reaction?
The rate of a reaction
What is the rate of a reaction?
The collision theory of reaction rates
Increasing the concentration
Increasing the temperature
The activation energy: getting reactions started
Breaking the energy barrier: the transition state
Catalysis: lowering the activation energy
The role of catalysts in chemical reactions
Enzymes: important biological catalysts
The specificity of enzymes
What happens during enzyme catalysis?
Enzyme kinetics
Increasing substrate concentration: the limitation of the enzyme's active site
Increasing temperature: the limitation of being a protein
Equilibria: how far do reactions go?
Equilibrium reactions
Equilibrium reactions and chemical change
Does it matter which reaction is 'forward' and which is 'back'?
Forward and back reactions: where is the balance struck?
The equilibrium constant
The magnitude of equilibrium constants
The reaction quotient
Predicting the direction of a reaction
Perturbing an equilibrium
Changing the concentration of the system
Changing the pressure or volume of the system
Changing the temperature
Using chemical equilibria to our advantage
Catalysts and chemical equilibria
Free energy and chemical equilibria
Gibbs free energy and the position of equilibrium
The aqueous environment: the medium of life
Acids and bases: making life happen
Defining acids and bases
Acids and bases in aqueous solution
Pairing up acids and bases: the conjugate acid-base pair
The strength of acids and bases: to what extent does the dissociation reaction occur?
Juggling protons: the tug-of-war between conjugate acid-base pairs
The acid dissociation constant: to what extent does an acid dissociate?
The base dissociation constant: to what extent does a base dissociate?
Keeping things balanced: the ion product of water
Making use of the ion product of water
Linking K[subscript w prime] K[subscript a] and K[subscript b]
Measuring concentrations: the pH scale
The pH of strong and weak acids
Changing pH: neutralization reactions
pOH: the basic equivalent of pH
Buffer solutions: keeping pH the same
How does a buffer solution work?
The pH of buffer solutions
Epilogue
Bibliography
Answers to self-check questions
Index