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Island Biogeography Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation

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ISBN-10: 0198566123

ISBN-13: 9780198566120

Edition: 2nd 2007

Authors: Robert J. Whittaker, Jos� Mar�a Fern�ndez-Palacios

List price: $85.00
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Island biogeography is the study of the distribution and dynamics of species in island environments. Due to their isolation from more widespread continental species, islands are ideal places for unique species to evolve, but they are also places of concentrated extinction. Not surprisingly, they are widely studied by ecologists, conservationists and evolutionary biologists alike. There is no other recent textbook devoted solely to island biogeography, and a synthesis of the many recent advances is now overdue. This second edition builds on the success and reputation of the first, documenting the recent advances in this exciting field and explaining how islands have been used as natural…    
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Book details

List price: $85.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/8/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 416
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Preface and acknowledgements
Islands as Natural Laboratories
The natural laboratory paradigm
Island environments
Types of islands
Modes of origin
Plate boundary islands
Islands in intraplate locations
Environmental changes over long timescales
Changes in relative sea level-reefs, atolls, and guyots
Eustatic changes in sea level
Climate change on islands
The developmental history of the Canaries, Hawaii, and Jamaica
The physical environment of islands
Topographic characteristics
Climatic characteristics
Water resources
Tracks in the ocean
Natural disturbance on islands
Magnitude and frequency
Disturbance from volcanism and mega-landslides
The biogeography of island life: biodiversity hotspots in context
Introduction: the global significance of island biodiversity
Species poverty
Disharmony, filters, and regional biogeography
Filtering effects, dispersal limits, and disharmony
Biogeographical regionalism and the vicariance/dispersalism debate
Macaronesia-the biogeographical affinities of the Happy Islands
Neo- and palaeoendemism
Endemic plants
Endemic animals
Cryptic and extinct island endemics: a cautionary note
Island Ecology
Species numbers games: the macroecology of island biotas
The development of the equilibrium theory of island biogeography
Island species-area relationships (ISARs)
Species abundance distributions
The distance effect
Turnover, the core model (EMIB), and its immediate derivatives
Competing explanations for systematic variation in island species-area relationships
Island species numbers and ISARs: what have we learnt?
Area and habitat diversity
Area is not always the first variable in the model
Distance and species numbers
Species-area relationships in remote archipelagos
Scale effects and the shape of species-area relationships
Species-energy theory-a step towards a more complete island species richness model?
Pseudoturnover and cryptoturnover
When is an island in equilibrium?
The rescue effect and the effect of island area on immigration rate
The path to equilibrium
What causes extinctions?
Community assembly and dynamics
Island assembly theory
Assembly rules
Incidence functions and tramps
The dynamics of island assembly
Chequerboard distributions
Combination and compatibility-assembly rules for cuckoo-doves
Criticisms, 'null' models, and responses
Exploring incidence functions
Linking island assembly patterns to habitat factors
Anthropogenic experiments in island assembly: evidence of competitive effects?
Successional island ecology: first elements
Krakatau-succession, dispersal structure, and hierarchies
Community succession
A dispersal-structured model of island recolonization
Colonization and turnover-the dynamics of species lists
The degree of organization in the Krakatau assembly process
Concluding observations
Scale and island ecological theory: towards a new synthesis
Limitations of the dynamic equilibrium model of island biogeography: a reappraisal
Scale and the dynamics of island biotas
Residency and hierarchical interdependency: further illustrations from Krakatau
Forms of equilibria and non-equilibria
Temporal variation in island carrying capacities
The prevalence and implications of intense disturbance events
Variation in species number in the short and medium term
Long term non-equilibrium systems
Implications for endemics?
Future directions
Island Evolution
Arrival and change
Founder effects, genetic drift, and bottlenecks
Implications of repeated founding events
After the founding event: ecological responses to empty niche space
Ecological release
Density compensation
Character displacement
Sex on islands
Dioecy and outcrossing
Loss of flower attractiveness
Peculiarities of pollination and dispersal networks on islands
The emergence of endemic super-generalists
Unusual pollinators
Unusual dispersal agents
Niche shifts and syndromes
The loss of dispersal powers
The development of woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages
Size shifts in island species and the island rule
Changes in fecundity and behaviour
The island syndrome in rodents
Speciation and the island condition
The species concept and its place in phylogeny
The geographical context of speciation events
Distributional context
Locational and historical context-island or mainland change?
Mechanisms of speciation
Allopatric or geographical speciation
Competitive speciation
Lineage structure
Emergent models of island evolution
Anagenesis: speciation with little or no radiation
The taxon cycle
Melanesian ants
Caribbean birds
Caribbean anolcs
Adaptive radiation
Darwin's finches and the Hawaiian honeycreeper-finches
Hawaiian crickets and drosophilids
Adaptive radiation in plants
From valley isolates to island-hopping radiations 230 Non-adaptive radiation
Speciation within an archipelago
Island-hopping allopatric radiations: do clades respond to islands or to habitats?
Island-hopping on the grand scale
Observations on the forcing factors of island evolution
Variation in insidar endemism between taxa
Biogeographical hierarchies and island evolutionary models
Islands and Conservation
Island theory and conservation
Islands and conservation
Habitats as islands
Minimum viable popidations and minimum viable areas
How many individuals are needed?
How big an area?
Applications of incidence functions
Metapopulation dynamics
The core-sink model variant
Deterministic extinction and colonization within metapopulations
Value of the metapopulation concept
Reserve configuration-the 'Single Large or Several Small' (SLOSS) debate
Dealing with the leftovers
Trophic level, scale, and system extent
Physical changes and the hyperdynamism of fragment systems
Relaxation and turnover-the evidence
Succession in fragmented landscapes
The implications of nestedness
Edge effects
Landscape effects, isolation, and corridors
The benefits of wildlife corridors
The benefits of isolation
Corridors or isolation?
Reserve systems in the landscape
Species that don't stay put
Does conservation biology need island theory?
A non-equilibrium world?
Ecological hierarchies and fragmented landscapes
Climate change and reserve systems
Concluding remarks: from island biogeography to countryside biogeography?
Anthropogenic losses and threats to island ecosystems
Current extinctions in context
Stochastic versus deterministic extinctions
The scale of island losses globally
The agencies of destruction
Predation by humans
Introduced species
Habitat degradation and loss
Trends in the causes of decline
A record of passage-patterns of loss across island taxa
Pacific Ocean birds and the Easter Island enigma
Indian Ocean birds
Caribbean land mammals
Island snails
Plants in peril
How fragile and invasible are island ecosystems?
Island remedies: the conservation of island ecosystems
Contemporary problems on islands
Maldives: in peril because of climatic change
Okino-Tori-Shima: the strategic economic importance of a rocky outcrop
Nauru: the destruction of an island
The Canaries: unsustainable development in a natural paradise
Contemporary problems in the Galapagos: a threatened evolutionary showcase
Some conservation responses
Biological control-a dangerous weapon?
Translocation and release programmes
Protected area and species protection systems: the Canarian example
Sustainable development on islands: constraints and remedies