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Earth under Siege From Air Pollution to Global Change

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ISBN-10: 0195142748

ISBN-13: 9780195142747

Edition: 2nd 2002 (Revised)

Authors: Richard P. Turco, Carl Sagan

List price: $110.95
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Description:

This second edition of Richard Turco's successful book, Earth Under Siege, provides a basic understanding of how our physical environment functions and how human activities affect it. Intended to educate the lay person-especially the policy makers, business administrators, and political leaders of the future-about some of the most pressing problems facing our modern world, this important book effectively describes the realities of environmental pollution and global change.It provides a comprehensive description of the natural environment and builds a foundation on which the science and policy of current environmental issues can be understood, including key local, regional, and global issues…    
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Book details

List price: $110.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/21/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 552
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.244
Language: English

A respected planetary scientist best known outside the field for his popularizations of astronomy, Carl Sagan was born in New York City on November 9, 1934. He attended the University of Chicago, where he received a B.A. in 1954, a B.S. in 1955, and a M.S. in 1956 in physics as well as a Ph.D. in 1960 in astronomy and astrophysics. He has several early scholarly achievements including the experimental demonstration of the synthesis of the energy-carrying molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in primitive-earth experiments. Another was the proposal that the greenhouse effect explained the high temperature of the surface of Venus. He was also one of the driving forces behind the mission of…    

Each chapter ends with Questions and Problems
Foreword
Preface
Preface to the First Edition
Introduction
The Cronus Syndrome
On the Quality of Life
Global Change and Preservation
Methodology for Study
Fundamentals
Air: The Medium of Change
What Is Air?
Sensing Air
The Basic Ingredients
The Basic Properties
A Short History of Discovery
The Air Revealed
The Mechanics of Air
The Structure of the Atmosphere
How Much Air Is There?
Temperature Profiles
The Stratification of the Atmosphere
Air in Motion
Local Winds and Weather
Global Wind Systems
Basic Physical and Chemical Principles
The Mechanical Behavior of Gases and Particles
Gas Laws and Hydrostatics
Particles in Suspension
Clouds and Precipitation
Radiation and Energy
Sunlight and Heat
Scattering and Absorption
Common Optical Effects
Chemistry and the Environment
Symbols and Terminology
Properties of Common Substances
The Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions
Basic Chemical Reactions
The Evolution of Earth
The Origin of the Earth
Early Evolutionary Phases
Box Models for Earth Reservoirs
The Prebiotic Atmosphere
The Coevolution of the Environment and Life
The Evolution of Life Processes
Ancient Organisms and Greenhouse Gases
Photosynthesis and the Ozone Layer
The Mass Extinction of Life
Fossil History
The Dinosaurs: A Lesson in Longevity
Goddess Gaia and Homeostasis
The Coevolution of Intelligence and Pollution
Population and Technology
Local and Regional Pollution Issues
Sources and Dispersion of Pollutants
The Source of the Problem
What to Call Pollutants?
Distributed and Point Sources
Size Scales of Dispersion
The Dispersion of Pollutants
Diffusion and Turbulence
Convection and Lofting
Advection and Long-Range Transport
Temperature Inversions
Temperatures in the Lower Atmosphere
Atmospheric Stability
Large-Scale Inversions
Plumes of Pollution
Smokestack Plumes
Ground Plumes
Urban Heat Islands
Regional Dispersion of Pollutants
In Coastal Zones
Near Mountain Barriers
Smog: The Urban Syndrome
The History of Smog
Air Pollution and Poets
London Smog
Los Angeles Smog
Primary and Secondary Pollutants
The Basic Ingredients
Clean and Dirty Air
Smog Scenarios: A Typical Polluted Day
Carbon Monoxide
Nitrogen Dioxide
Ozone
Dissecting Smog
The Evolution of Smoggy Air
Trends in Air Pollution
Haze and Visibility
Total Suspended Particulate
Seeing through Air
Acid Particles and Fog
Controlling Smog: Everyone's Job
Reducing Emissions of Primary Pollutants
Alternative Fuels
Lifestyles for Health and Survival
Effects of Exposure to Pollution
How Pollutants Affect Health
The Discovery of Toxicity
The Physiology of Toxicity
The Toxic Effects of Air Pollutants
Common Ingredients of Smog
Eye Irritants
Organic Vapors
Problem Particles
Persistent Environmental Toxins
Radioactivity
Stability of the Elements
Sources of Radioactivity
The Physiological Effects of Radioactivity
Assessment of Health Risks
Defining the Threat
Risks and Benefits of Pollution
Box Models for Risk Assessment
Urban Smog: A Case Study
Limiting Risk
Indoor Air Pollution
What Are ""Indoor"" Air Pollutants?
The Special Character of Indoor Pollution
Indoor Pollution and the News
Radon: Mother and Daughters
Poison from the Earth
Radon Exposure and Its Effects
Formaldehyde
Embalmers' Fluid
Formaldehyde's Impacts on Health
Tobacco Smoke
Composition of Tobacco Smoke
Tobacco Smoke's Effects on Health
Smoke and Mirrors
Other Indoor Pollutants
Biogenic Pollutants
Indoor Water Pollution
Indoor Versus Outdoor Pollution
Is It Safe to Go Indoors?
Making Indoors Safe
Acid Rain
The Tainted Rain
Acidity and pH
The pH Scale
Acids in Water
Alkalinity: The Acid Buffer
Sources of Environmental Acids
How Acid Is Acid Rain?
Sulfur Oxides and Acid Rain
Nitrogen Oxides and Acid Rain
Acid Fog
The Costs of Excess Acidity
Dying Forests and Lakes
A Potpourri of Destruction
Health Implications
Controlling Acid Rain and Fog
Global-Scale Pollution Issues
Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect
Ozone Depletion and the Ozone Hole
Climate Change Caused by Nuclear War: Nuclear Winter
The Relationship between Population and Pollution
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
The Grand Chemical Cycles of Earth
Reservoirs in the Earth System
Simple Reservoir Models
Biogeochemical Cycles of the Primary Elements
Sulfur
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Carbon
The Hydrological Cycle
A Global Garbage Dump?
The Climate Machine
Weather and Climate
Energy from the Sun
Solar Illumination
The Four Seasons
The Temperature of Earth
Sunlight In, Earthglow Out
An Energy Balance Model
The Temperatures of the Planets
The Greenhouse Effect
Atmospheric Band Absorption
Radiation Emission from the Earth
Clouds and Radiation
The Greenhouse Energy Balance
Energy Reservoirs: The Climate Flywheel
Reservoirs for Heat
Ice: The Cool Reservoir
A Coupled Climate System
Causes of Climate Change
Climate Variability
Solar Variability: External Forcing
Ice Ages
Volcanic Eruptions
The Albedo Effect
The Vulnerability of Life to a Changing Climate
Modern Society and Climate
Do We Need Climate Insurance?
Greenhouse Warming
Greenhouse Gases
The Greenhouse Culprits: A Rogue's Gallery
Water Vapor: Innocent Bystander or Good Samaritan?
Carbon Dioxide
Increasing CO2: What Is the Cause?
The Problem with Energy Addiction
Other Greenhouse Gases
Methane
Nitrous Oxide
Chlorofluorocarbons
Ozone
the Warming Effect of Greenhouse Gases
Climate History and the Greenhouse Effect
Recent Temperature Trends
Forecasts of Greenhouse Warming
Uncertainty Is the Future
Solutions?
Recyclable Fuels
Alternative Energy Sources
Climate Correction: Endangering the Environment
The Stratospheric Ozone Layer
The Ozone Shield
The Formation and Destruction of Ozone
The Photochemistry of Ozone
The Destruction of Catalytic Ozone
The Distribution of Ozone in the Atmosphere
Dobson Units: Ozone Overhead
How Much Ozone Is There?
Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation
Regions of the Ultraviolet Spectrum
Health Effects of UV-B Radiation
Environmental Effects of UV-B Radiation
Threats Against Ozone
A Litany of Threats
Chlorine
Nitrogen Oxides and Ozone Change
Bromine and the Halons
Forecasts of Global Ozone Depletion
Scenarios and Projections
Signature of the Culprit
The Ozone Hole
Discovery
The Polar Vortex
Polar Stratospheric Clouds
Ozone Depletion: The Hole Story
A Global Ozone Disaster?
Solutions and Actions
The Montreal Protocol
Saving the Earth's Ozone Layer
Global Environmental Engineering
What Is Global Environmental Engineering?
Living Thermostats: Natural Compensation
Planetary Engineering
Technological Traps
Nuclear Winter
Carbon Dioxide
Chlorofluorocarbons
Technological Cures
Preventing Armageddon
Cooling Down the Greenhouse
Fixing the Ozone Shield
A Rational Approach to Environmental Management
Scientific Notation, Units, and Constants
Scientific Notation
Applications of Scientific Notation
Large and Small Numbers
Using Mixing Ratios
The Metric System: Units and Conversions
Common Units of Measure
Manipulation of Dimensions and Units
Physical and Mathematical Constants
Physical Constants (and Their Common Symbols)
Mathematical Constants
Mathematical Operations
Squares and Square Roots
Higher Powers
Exponentials and Logarithms
Algebraic Equations
Inequalities
Demonstrations of Common Natural Phenomena
Demonstration 1: Light Scattering by Small Particles
Background
Experimental Procedure
Demonstration 2: Gas-to-Particle Conversion in Smog
Background
Experimental Procedure
Demonstration 3: Atmospheric Pressure and Water Vapor Condensation
Background
Experimental Procedure
Demonstration 4: Acid Rain Formation
Background
Experimental Procedure
Radiation Nomenclature
Index