Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

ISBN-10: 0195122356

ISBN-13: 9780195122350

Edition: 2002

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Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is the first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behaviour, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitivesynthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change.In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes", but also behavioural development and psychological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes - modular organization and plasticity - facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describeorganisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book ondevelopment, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change.The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues.Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behaviour, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, pscyhologists and teachers of general biology.
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Book details

Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/13/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 816
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.992
Language: English

Framework for a Synthesis
Gaps and Inconsistencies in Modern Evolutionary Thought
Six Points of Confusion and Controversy
The Unimodal Adaptation Concept and the Multimodal Products of Development and Plasticity
The Cohesiveness Problem
Proximate and Ultimate Causation
The Problem of Continuous versus Discrete Variation and Change
Problematic Metaphors
The Genotype-Phenotype Problem
Toward a Solution
Material for a Synthesis
Previous Insights on Development and Evolution
A Unified Theory of Phenotypic Development and Evolution
Definitions of Key Terms
The Meaning of Plasticity
Mechanisms of Plasticity
Phenotypic Accommodation
The Evolutionary Importance of Mechanisms
Modularity as Plasticity
Hierarchy and Integration as Aspects of Modularity
Application of the Modularity Concept at Different Levels of Organization
Metamorphosis and Life Cycle Modularity
The Genetic Architecture of Modular Traits
Modular Traits as Subunits of Gene Expression
Limitations of the Modularity Concept
Landmarks in the Evolution of Modularity
Hypermodularity and Somatic Sequestration
General Evolutionary Consequences of Increased Modularity
Continuity of the Phenotype
The Dual Nature of All Regulation
Gene-Environment Equivalence and Interchangeability
The Organization of Development by Switches
Complementarity, Continued
Consequences for Selection and Evolution
Adaptive Evolution
Prerequisites for Evolution by Natural Selection
The Origins of Novelty
Genetic Accommodation
Genes as Followers in Evolution
A Developmental Definition of Adaptive Evolution
Principles of Development and Evolution
Evolutionary Consequences of Plasticity
Evolutionary Consequences of Modularity
Consequences of Hierarchical Organization
Consequences of Regulatory Complexity
Does Plasticity Accelerate or Retard Evolution?
Does Plasticity per se Evolve?
Does Behavior Take the Lead in Evolution?
Developmental Plasticity as a Solution to the Cohesiveness Problem
Darwin's Theory of Development and Evolution
The Origins of Novelty
The Nature and Analysis of Phenotypic Transitions
Missing Chapters
Developmental Recombination as a Complex Response to a Simple Input
Important Distinctions
Problems in Interpretation
In Praise of Anomalies
Duplication and the Rule of Independent Selection
Gene Duplication
Duplication in the Origin of Novel Morphologies
Duplication in the Origin of Novel Behaviors
Concerted Evolution and Diversification in Multigene and Multiphenotype Families
Melanophore Deletion in the Midas Cichlid
Deletion in the Evolution of the Arthropod Body Plan
Life-Stage Deletions
Deletion in the Evolution of Behavior
Deletion of the Male Phenotype in Unisexual Flowers and Fishes
Deletion of Intermediates
What Happens to the Genes?
The Developmental and Genetic Basis of Atavisms and Reversions
Pleiotropy and Silent Genes
One-Step and Gradual Reversions
Behavioral Heterochrony
Socially Induced Heterochrony in the Evolution of Termites
Life-History Heterochrony in Vertebrates
Heterochrony in Plants
Gradual versus One-Step Heterochrony
Cross-Sexual Transfer
The Organization and Reorganization of Sex Expression
Darwin's Theory of Cross-sexual Transfer
Kinds of Evidence for Cross-sexual Transfer
Alternative Explanations for Sexual Monomorphism
Cross-sexual Transfer in Plants
Cross-sexual Transfer in Animals
Female Hormones and Neurotransmitter Substances in Male Semen and Accessory Glands
Alternative Reproductive Tactics
Cross-sexual Transfer of Parental Care
Cross-sexual Transfer of Switch Mechanisms
The Social Environment as an Inducer of Cross-sexual Transfer
Quantitative Shifts and Correlated Change
Correlated Extremes
The Two-Legged Goat Effect in Domestic and Natural Populations
Quantum Shifts and Environmental Extremes
Combinatorial Evolution at the Molecular Level
Combinatorial Evolution in Regulatory Molecules
Combinatorial Evolution in the Genome
Phenotypic Recombination by RNA Splicing
Genetic Accommodation at the Molecular Level
Combinatorial Evolution and DNA Sequence Conservation
Molecular Terminology and the Definitions of Evolution and the Gene
Phenotypic Recombination Due to Learning
Learning in Relation to Selection and Evolution
Learning as a Developmental Source of Evolved Correlations
The Genetic Accommodation of Learned Traits
Mimicry of Natural Selection by Learning
Evolved Components of Learning
Learned Components of Evolved Traits
Learning and Individual Differences in the Evolution of Specialization
Social Competition and Learning
The Importance of Forgetting
Historical Discussions of Recurrence
Problems in the Interpretation of Recurrent Similarity
Patterns of Recurrence
Environmentally Correlated Recurrence
Consequences of Recurrence for Systematics and Phylogenetics
The Evolutionary Significance of Recurrence
Alternative Phenotypes
Alternative Phenotypes as a Phase of Evolution
Terms and Distinctions
Alternative Phenotypes as Models for Relating Development and Evolution
Phenomena Easily Confused with Alternative Phenotypes
Historical Misconceptions about Alternative Phenotypes
How Alternatives Facilitate Evolution
Divergence Without Speciation
Specieslike Aspects of Alternatives
Evidence of Postorigin Divergence
Why Alternatives May Foster Divergence More Effectively Than Speciation
Phenotype Fixation and Developmental Character Release
Genetic Assimilation Revisited
Maintenance Without Equilibrium
Matching Models to Modes of Regulation
Maintenance of Conditional Alternatives
Alternative Phenotypes and Maintenance of Genetic Polymorphism
Selected Examples
Learning and Assessment
How Complex Mechanisms of Assessment Originate and Evolve
The Evolution of Assessment Involving Choice
Developmental Plasticity and the Major Themes of Evolutionary Biology
Modern Permutations of the Gradualism Controversy
What the Gradualism Controversy Is Not
Fisher's Solution, or Why the Neo-Darwinian Resolution of the Gradualism Controversy Was Unsatisfactory
Nine Modern Beliefs about Gradualism Reexamined in the Light of Developmental Plasticity
Is Darwinian Gradualism Falsified by a Developmental Evolutionary Biology?
Cladistic and Broad-Sense Homology
The Criteria versus the Definition of Homology
Iterative or "Paralogous" Homology
"Mixed" Homology
Levels of Analysis and the Perception of Homology
Multiple Developmental Pathways and the Homology Concept
Environmental Modifications
The Entrenchment of Environmental Elements in Development
The Environmental Induction of Novelty
The Superior Evolutionary Prospects of Environmentally Induced Traits
Recurrent Extreme Environments and Phenotypic Innovation
Evidence for Environmental Initiation of Reorganizational Novelty
Environmental Influence and the Paleontological Time Scales of Evolutionary Change
Developmental Plasticity and Speciation: Theory
Developmental Plasticity and Speciation: Kinds of Evidence
Speciation by Fixation of Parallel Alternative Phenotypes in the Two Sexes
Plasticity and Abrupt Sympatric Speciation
Other Proposed Examples of Sympatric Speciation
Alternative Phenotypes and Speciation in Clines
Learning, Sexual Selection, and Speciation
Adaptive Radiation
Binary Radiations
Multidirectional Radiations
Synergism of Plasticity and Other Factors in Adaptive Radiation
Grounds for Generalization
Intraspecific Macroevolution Compared with Previous Macroevolution Concepts
How Developmental Plasticity Facilitates Intraspecific Macroevolution
Sexually Selected Flexibility and Macroevolutionary Trends
Systema Naturae, or Why All Phyla Are Old
Why Molecular Biology Cannot Solve the Macroevolution Problem
Plasticity and Punctuation
Two Fossil Examples
Morphological Stasis Is Not Evolutionary Stasis
One Final Word: Sex
Literature Cited
Author Index
Taxonomic Index
Subject Index
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