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Liquids, Solutions, and Interfaces From Classical Macroscopic Descriptions to Modern Microscopic Details

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ISBN-10: 0195094328

ISBN-13: 9780195094329

Edition: 2004

Authors: W. Ronald Fawcett, William Ronald Fawcett

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Book details

Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 7/1/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 638
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 1.980
Language: English

Fundamental Constants
The Thermodynamics of Liquid Solutions
Most Liquid Solutions Are Not Ideal
Concentration Units
Thermodynamic Quantities
Partial Molar Quantities
Ideal Solutions--Raoult's Law
Thermodynamics of Ideal Solutions
Non-Ideal Solutions
Thermodynamics of Non-Ideal Solutions
Regular Solutions
An Empirical Approach to Non-Ideal Solutions
Ideally Dilute Solutions
Thermodynamics of Ideally Dilute Solutions
Experimental Determination of Solution Activities
Concluding Remarks
The Structure of Liquids
What Is a Liquid?
The Statistical Thermodynamics of Liquids
Intermolecular Forces
Distribution and Correlation Functions
The Experimental Study of Liquid Structure
The Direct Correlation Function and the Mean Spherical Approximation
Computer Simulations of Simple Liquids
Estimation of Thermodynamic Properties from the Pair Correlation Function
The Properties of a Hard-Sphere Fluid
The Structure of Water
Distribution Functions for Liquid Solutions
Concluding Remarks
Electrolyte Solutions
Electrolyte Solutions Are Always Non-Ideal
Ionic Size in Solutions
The Thermodynamics of Ion-Solvent Interactions
Ion-Solvent Interactions According to the Born Model
Ion-Solvent Interactions According to the Mean Spherical Approximation
The Thermodynamics of Electrolyte Solutions
The Experimental Determination of Activity Coefficients for Electrolytes
Ion-Ion Interactions According to the Debye-Huckel Model
Ion-Ion Interactions According to the MSA
The Thermodynamics of Ion Association
Ion Association According to the MSA
Concluding Remarks
Polar Solvents
What Constitutes a Polar Liquid?
Some Important Properties of Polar Solvents
The Static Solvent Permittivity on the Basis of Continuum Models
The Static Solvent Permittivity According to the MSA
Dielectric Relaxation Phenomena
The Permittivity of Electrolyte Solutions
The Dielectric Relaxation Parameters
Ion Solvation in Polar Solvents
Polar Solvents as Lewis Acids and Bases
Concluding Remarks
Spectroscopic Studies of Liquid Structure and Solvation
What Spectroscopic Techniques Are Available?
X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction Experiments
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Solutions
NMR Studies of Ion Solvation in Water
NMR Studies of Ion Solvation in Non-Aqueous Solvents
Vibrational Spectroscopy in Solutions
Infrared Spectroscopy of Polar Solvents
Infrared Spectroscopy of Non-Electrolyte Solutions
Infrared Spectroscopy of Electrolyte Solutions
Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy and Solvatochromic Effects
Concluding Remarks
Non-Equilibrium Phenomena in Liquids and Solutions
Non-Equilibrium Processes Are Usually Complex
The Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes
The Viscosity of Liquids
Isothermal Diffusion in Solutions
Linear Diffusion from a Wall
The Electrochemical Potential
The Conductivity of Electrolyte Solutions
Experimental Studies of Conductivity
The Debye-Onsager Model for Conductivity
Transport Phenomena in Non-Aqueous Solutions
Proton Transport Phenomena
Concluding Remarks
Chemical Reaction Kinetics in Solution
What Time Scales Are Involved for Chemical Reactions in Solution?
Fundamental Concepts
General Types of Solution Reactions
Temperature Effects and Transition State Theory
Diffusion-Controlled Rapid Reactions
Relaxation Techniques for Rapid Reactions
Laser Spectroscopy and Femtochemistry in Solutions
The Theory of Homogeneous Electron Transfer
NMR Spectroscopy and Chemical Exchange Reactions
Medium Effects in Solution Reactions
Linear Gibbs Energy Relationships
Concluding Remarks
Liquids and Solutions at Interfaces
The Molecular Environment at the Interface Is Different than in the Bulk
The Interfacial Tension of Liquids
The Thermodynamics of Fluid Interfaces
The Electrical Aspects of Interfaces
The Work Function for Electrons in Metals
The Liquid[vertical bar]Gas Interface and the Adsorption Isotherm
Experimental Measurement of the Volta Potential Difference at Interfaces
The Metal[vertical bar]Solution Interface
The Liquid[vertical bar]Liquid Interface
Surface Films on Liquids
Spectroscopy at Liquid Interfaces
Concluding Remarks
Charge Transfer Equilibria at Interfaces
Electrochemical Equilibria Occur at a Wide Variety of Interfaces
Electrochemical Cells
The Thermodynamic Basis of the Nernst Equation
The Absolute Electrode Potential
Experimental Studies of Electrochemical Cells
Electrochemical Cells for Electroanalysis
The Liquid Junction Potential
Membrane Potentials and the Donnan Effect
Ion-Selective Electrodes
p-Functions and the Definition of pH
Concluding Remarks
The Electrical Double Layer
The Electrical Double Layer Is an Example of Electrostatic Equilibrium
The Thermodynamics of the Ideally Polarizable Interface
The Experimental Study of the Double Layer
The Structure of the Double Layer
The Potential of Zero Charge and the Role of the Metal
The Gouy-Chapman Model of the Diffuse Double Layer
The Structure of the Inner Layer in the Absence of Adsorption
The Specific Adsorption of Ions
The Adsorption of Molecules at Electrodes
Concluding Remarks
Mathematical Background
Laplace Transforms
Fourier Transforms
Complex Numbers and Functions
Power Series
The Laws of Electricity and Magnetism
Numerical Methods of Data Analysis
The Principle of Least Squares
Linear Regression
Multiple Linear Regression
Numerical Methods
Numerical Interpolation
Numerical Integration
Numerical Differentiation