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Physical Electronics | |

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Introduction | |

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Scientific Notation and Powers of 10 | |

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Rules for Exponents | |

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Measurement of Physical Properties | |

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The Atomic Nature of Matter | |

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Properties of Elements | |

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The Periodic Table | |

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Static Electricity | |

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The Bohr Model of the Atom | |

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Modern Atomic Theory | |

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Conductors | |

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Insulators | |

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Semiconductors | |

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Introduction to Basic Electrical Concepts | |

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Electrical Charge | |

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Interactions between Charged Particles: Coulomb's Law | |

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Electrical Current | |

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Voltage | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Voltage And Current Sources: The Sinusoidal Waveform | |

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Introduction | |

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The Independent Voltage Source | |

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Periodic Waveforms | |

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Periodic Waveform Definitions | |

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The DC Waveform | |

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The Independent Current Source | |

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Voltage Source Currents | |

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Commercial Voltage Sources | |

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Commercial AC Voltage Sources | |

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Commercial DC Voltage Sources | |

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The Sinusoidal Waveform | |

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The Basic Sine Wave Equation | |

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The RMS Value of the Sine Wave | |

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Phase Relationship between Waveforms | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Mathematical Background | |

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Introduction | |

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Angles | |

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Degree Measurement of Angles | |

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Radian Measurement of Angles | |

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Coordinate Systems | |

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Polar Coordinates | |

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Rectangular Coordinates | |

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Conversion Between Polar and Rectangular Coordinates | |

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Functions of Angles: Trigonometry | |

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Inverse Trigonometric Functions | |

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Coordinate Transformations | |

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Complex Numbers | |

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Mathematics of Complex Numbers (Addition and Subtraction) | |

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Complex Numbers: Multiplication | |

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Complex Numbers: Complex Conjugates | |

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Complex Numbers: Division Using Complex Conjugates | |

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Graphical Representations of Complex Numbers | |

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Rectangular Coordinate Representation of Complex Numbers | |

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Polar Coordinates (Phasors) | |

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The Euler Formula | |

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Time Varying Complex Numbers: Phasors | |

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Phasors as Sources | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Steady State Behavior of Circuit Elements | |

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Introduction | |

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Phasors | |

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Sine and Cosine Waves as Phasors | |

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Mathematical Computations Using Phasors | |

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Ohm's Law and Impedance | |

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Passive Circuit Elements | |

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The Resistor | |

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The Inductor | |

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The Capacitor | |

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Circuit Elements under DC Conditions | |

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The Resistor under DC Conditions | |

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The Inductor under DC Conditions | |

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The Capacitor under DC Conditions | |

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Admittance | |

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Admittance of Passive Elements | |

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Impedance and Admittance of Element Combinations | |

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Conductance and Susceptance | |

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Calculation of Conductance and Susceptance | |

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Plotting Z and Y | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Steady State Analysis of Series and Parallel Circuits | |

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Introduction | |

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The Series Circuit | |

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Definition | |

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Kirchhoff's Voltage Law | |

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Equivalent Series Impedance | |

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Voltage Division Law | |

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Impedance and Phasor Diagrams of Series Circuits | |

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Equivalence of Like Passive Series Elements | |

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Resistors in Series | |

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Inductors in Series | |

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Capacitors in Series | |

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The Parallel Circuit | |

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Definition | |

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Kirchhoff's Current Law | |

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Equivalent Parallel Impedance | |

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Admittances in Parallel | |

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Current Division Law | |

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Admittance and Phasor Diagrams of Parallel Circuits | |

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Equivalence of Like Passive Parallel Elements | |

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Resistors in Parallel | |

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Inductors in Parallel | |

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Capacitors in Parallel | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Steady State Analysis of Series-Parallel Circuits | |

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Introduction | |

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Definition | |

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Equivalent Impedance | |

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Finding Equivalent Impedances | |

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Series-Parallel Circuit Problems | |

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Circuit Reference Points | |

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Series to Parallel Circuit Conversion | |

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Impedance Conversion | |

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Source Conversion | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Formal Steady State Circuit Analysis Techniques and Theorems | |

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Introduction | |

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Determinants | |

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2 [times] 2 Determinants | |

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3 [times] 3 Determinants | |

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Mesh Analysis | |

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Definition | |

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Two-Mesh Circuits | |

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Three-Mesh Circuits | |

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Nodal Analysis | |

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Definition | |

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Two-Node Circuit | |

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Three-Node Circuit | |

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Mesh Analysis versus Nodal Analysis | |

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Analysis with Ideal Sources | |

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Superposition Theorem | |

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Thevenin's and Norton's Theorems | |

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Thevenin's Theorem | |

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Norton's Theorem | |

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Dependent Sources | |

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Dependent Sources in Thevenin Equivalent Circuit Problems | |

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Dependent Sources in Norton Equivalent Circuit Problems | |

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Dependent Sources in Mesh and Nodal Analysis | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Frequency Response of Common Circuits | |

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Introduction | |

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Properties of Exponents | |

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Logarithms | |

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Use of Logarithms in Power Measurement: Decibels | |

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Equivalent Calculations of Decibels | |

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Decibel Scales | |

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Transfer Function Properties | |

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Transfer Functions versus Frequency: Logarithms | |

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Logarithms as a Graphic Aid | |

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Plotting a Curve: The Asymptotic Approach | |

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Filters | |

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Low-Pass Filters | |

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High-Pass Filters | |

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Bandpass Filters | |

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Band Rejection Filters | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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R-L-C Circuits | |

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Introduction | |

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The Series R-L-C Circuit | |

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Selectivity of Series R-L-C Circuits | |

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Parallel R-L-C Circuits | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Magnetic Induction and Transformers | |

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Introduction | |

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Review of Magnetic Induction | |

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Ideal Two-Winding Transformer | |

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The Step-Up and Step-Down Transformers | |

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The Isolation Transformer | |

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The Impedance Matching Transformer | |

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Multiwinding Transformers | |

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Non-Ideal Transformers | |

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Iron Core Transformers | |

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Air Core Transformers | |

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Determining Parameters of Iron Core Transformer | |

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Short Circuit Test | |

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Open Circuit Test | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Power and Energy | |

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Introduction | |

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Instantaneous Power | |

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Power in Passive Circuit Elements | |

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Power in the Resistor | |

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Power in the Inductor | |

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Power in the Capacitor | |

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Power Factor, Apparent Power and the Power Triangle | |

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Power Factor | |

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Apparent Power and the Power Triangle | |

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Circuit Power Calculations | |

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Maximum Power Transfer Theorem | |

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Power Factor Correction | |

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Power in DC Circuits | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Transient Analysis of Circuits | |

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Introduction | |

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OHM's Law Revisited | |

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OHM's Law for Sinusoidal Sources in the Steady State Mode | |

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Physical Laws for Capacitors and Inductors | |

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Kirchhoff's Laws Revisited | |

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Transient Properties of Electrical Services | |

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Laplace Transforms: An Introduction | |

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Representing Passive Elements in the Laplace Domain | |

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Time Dependent Sources in the Laplace Domain | |

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Properties of the Solution Equations | |

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Partial Fraction Expansion | |

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Laplace Transforms: Finding the Circuit's Behavior in Time | |

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The Series R-C Circuit | |

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The Parallel R-C Circuit | |

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A Series R-L Circuit Solution | |

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A Parallel R-L Circuit Solution | |

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Solutions for A Series R-L-C Circuit | |

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Other Solutions | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Component Properties | |

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Introduction | |

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Linear and Passive Elements | |

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Properties of Matter: Temperature | |

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The Celsius Temperature Scale | |

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Thermal Equilibrium | |

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Temperature Measurements--Absolute Zero | |

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Properties of Matter: Conductivity | |

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Conductivity | |

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Resistance | |

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Resistance and Wire Size | |

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Resistance and Power | |

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Resistance and Temperature | |

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Resistors | |

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Standard Resistance Values | |

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Other Types of Resistors | |

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Magnetic Fields and Inductance | |

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Capacitance and Capacitors | |

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Real Components | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Instrumentation and Lab Simulation | |

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Introduction | |

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Types of Measurements | |

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DC Current Measurements | |

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DC Voltage Measurements | |

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AC Measurements: Voltmeters and Ammeters | |

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Resistance Measurement Concepts | |

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Measuring Resistance: Ohmmeters | |

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Analog Ohmmeters | |

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Linear Ohmmeters | |

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Measurement Concepts | |

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Viewing Signals That Vary with Time: The Oscilloscope | |

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The [times] Axis (Time Base) | |

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The Triggering Signal: Synchronization | |

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Setting the Input Controls: The Oscilloscope in Operation | |

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Setting the Time Base Controls | |

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Circuit Analysis Software | |

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Analysis Using EWB Version 4.1 | |

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EWB Version 4.1 Techniques | |

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A DC Series Circuit | |

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An AC Series Circuit | |

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A Series-Parallel AC Circuit | |

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A Superposition Problem | |

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Other EWB Capabilities | |

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Summary | |

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The Law of Magnetic Induction | |

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Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Problems | |

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Index | |