Content Area Reading and Writing Fostering Literacies in Middle and High School Cultures

ISBN-10: 0132298546

ISBN-13: 9780132298544

Edition: 2nd 2008

Authors: Norman Unrau

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Through this strategy-driven, theory-based book, content-area teachers gain a thorough understanding of the fundamental role that reading and writing play in content-area learning. Unique to this book is the attention paid to helping teachers understand how the high school cultures students belong to affect their view of literacy and learning. This book presents a diagnostic perspective on teaching-encourages future teachers to examine students performance/work on an individual basis-helps teachers see how each students culture, background, personality, and prior knowledge inform his or her learning and suggests "best practice" for that particular learner.The author offers step-by-step approaches to gauge student literacy, build vocabulary, and implement instruction that improves comprehension, encourages critical reading, supports writing for learning, and facilitates collaboration for literacy development. Content includes research-based review of writing and numerous writing strategies; research-based overview of motivation for literacy in the content areas; and features a full range of plans to get beginning teachers off to a "good start" by showing how to create a cohesive methodology that aligns state standards with integrated strategy instruction and authentic assessment.For future middle and high school educators. nbsp; nbsp;
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Book details

List price: $195.20
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 6/27/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 480
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Knowing Your Students and Their Literacies
Engaging Cultures and Literacies for Learning
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
Beginning Teachers Remember Their High School Cultures and Literacies
How Do Cultures Shape Minds?
What Is Culture?
How Cultures Shape Minds
School Cultures Shaping Students' Minds
School Cultures
Beginning Teachers Discovering School Cultures
Links Between Cultures and Literacies
What Is Literacy?
Is There an Adolescent Literacy Crisis?
Groups Struggling with School Literacy
Is There a Crisis of Engagement With Learning at the Core of Middle and High School Cultures?
Disconnects Between Students, Their Teachers, and the Curriculum
Can We Generalize?
Cultures and Literacies as Resources for Engagement
Addressing Teachers' Nightmares
Content Literacy: A Rationale and a Story
New Literacies
Lessons from "Beating the Odds" Classrooms
Meeting the Challenges of Literacy and Learning
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Motivation to Read Content-Area Texts
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
Motivation to Read
Ms. Hawthorne's Challenge
Changes in Motivation to Read Through the School Years
Toward a Unifying Vision of Motivation to Read: Self-Determination Theory
The Focus of Motivation
Student Factors Contributing to a Student's Motivation to Read
Student Identity
Self-Expectations and Self-Efficacy
Goals and Task Values
Reading Skills and Knowledge
Textual Connections
Teacher Factors Contributing to Students' Motivation to Read
Teacher Engagement
Achievement-Related Instruction
Classroom Community
Autonomy Support
Assessment and Reward Systems
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Inside the Meaning Construction Zone: Readers Reading
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
How Students Construct and Negotiate Meanings
Myths of the Good Reader
First Good Reader Myth: They Can Read at 1,000 Words a Minute or More with Improved Comprehension
Second Good Reader Myth: They Don't Subvocalize
Third Good Reader Myth: They Read Only the Key Words
Fourth Good Reader Myth: They Recognize Words as Wholes
Fifth Good Reader Myth: They Read Groups of Words as a Unit of Thought
Sixth Good Reader Myth: They Never Look Back
Characteristics of Good Readers
The Benefits of a Reading Process Model
How Personal Theories of Reading Affect Reading Processes and Outcomes
A Peek into the Reader's Construction Zone
An Overview of the Reading Model
The Sensory System
Cognitive Processes and Outcomes
Metacognitive Processes
Text and Classroom Content
Implications of the Model for Teaching
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Assessing Readers and Their Texts
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
Diagnostic Teaching
Content Teachers' Diagnostic Decision Making About Reading
Student's Identity, History, Goals, Values, and Interests
Expected Level of Reading
Assessment of Students' Reading Ability
Class Literacy Profile
Teaching Strategies and Resources
Diagnostic Teaching
Instructional Monitoring, Modification, and Recommendations
Assessment Instruments for Diagnostic Teaching
Formal Assessment
Norm-Referenced Tests
Criterion-Referenced Tests
Assessing the Assessment Instruments
Reading Processes That Cannot Be Adequately Assessed
Informal Assessment
Group Reading Inventory (GRI)
Step-By-Step: Group Reading Inventory
Miscue Analysis
Running Records
Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)
Step-By-Step: Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM)
Informal Assessments for a Closer Look at Comprehension Processes
Step-By-Step: Retelling
Comprehension Think-Alouds
Step-By-Step: Doing a Comprehension Think-Aloud
Interviews and Interactions
Portfolio Assessment in Content Area Classrooms
Inventories of Reading Strategies
Categories of Adolescent Readers
Who Can Be Helped and How?
Assessing Texts: Readability and Accessibility
Readability Formulas
Step-By-Step: Calculating Readability with Fry's Formula
Cloze Tests
Step-By-Step: How to Administer a Cloze Readability Test
Friendly Text Evaluation Scale
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Enhancing Your Students' Literacies Through Strategic Instruction
Developing Vocabulary, Concepts, and Fluency for Content Area Literacy
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
Transforming Words into Meanings
The Lexicon in Long-Term Memory
From Word Recognition to Fluency
Metacognition and Making Meaning from Words
The Complexities of Simply Knowing a Word
Word Counts
High- and Low-Frequency Words
Student-Led Vocabulary Growth: A Strategy-Integrated Model
Step-By-Step: Student-Led Vocabulary Development
Flashbacks: The Return of the Vocabulary Card
What We Know About Teaching Vocabulary
Principles to Guide Vocabulary Learning
Creating Word-Rich Environments
Fostering Word Consciousness
Gaining Word Knowledge Through Strategy Instruction
Addressing Vocabulary
Word Knowledge Check
Keyword Method
Word Maps
Word Parts
Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)
Step-By-Step: Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)
Activities for Mastering VSS and Other Important Words
Step-By-Step: Semantic Maps
Step-By-Step: Synonym Webs
Step-By-Step: Semantic Feature Analysis
Growing Word Knowledge: Just Reading
Word Play: Language Games in Context
Looking Closely at Students Constructing Word Meanings
Using Context to Learn Words with Passion
Using Technology to Foster Vocabulary Growth
A Summary of Research Guiding Instruction in Vocabulary Development
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Strategies to Enhance Comprehension
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
Comprehension-Enhancing Strategies to Activate and Integrate Knowledge
Double-Entry Journal (DEJ)
Step-By-Step: How to Design and Implement DEJs
Anticipation Guide
Step-By-Step: How to Prepare and Present Anticipation Guides
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)
Step-By-Step: How to Do a DR-TA
Know-Want to Know-Learned (K-W-L) Strategy
Step-By-Step: How to Do a K-W-L
The Prereading Plan (PreP)
Step-By-Step: How to Do a PreP
Directed Inquiry Activity (DIA)
Step-By-Step: How to Do a DIA
Making Reading Meaningful
Step-By-Step: How to Help Students Make Reading Meaningful
Text Structure
Types of Text Structures
Effects of Text-Structure Knowledge
Five Basic Text Structures
Levels of Text Structure
What's the Structure?
Step-By-Step: What's the Structure
Text Structures and Genres in Different Disciplines
Strategies for Organizing Knowledge (Knowledge Organizers)
Note Taking (from Lectures and Readings)
Graphic Organizers
Concept Mapping
Step-By-Step: How to Design a Concept Map
Double-Journal Entry: After Reading
Writing to Assess, Promote, and Observe Learning
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
Changes and Challenges in Writing to Learn
A Peek into the Writer's Construction Zone
How Process Upstaged Product
How Writing Furthers Constructivism
Effects of Social Contexts on the Writing Process
The Promise of Writing to Learn
Types of Writing
Effects of Writing on Learning
The National Writing Project (NWP)
Categories of Writing
Writing to Assess Learning
Writing to Promote Learning
Implementing Strategies
Writing to Observe Student Work
Step-By-Step: A Protocol for Looking at Student Work
The Teacher's Dilemma: What Kind of Writing Should I Assign?
Responding to Writing
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Critical Reading of Print and Nonprint Texts
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
The Need for More Critical Reading
What Is Critical Reading?
Activities to Foster Critical Thinking
Inquiry Questions (IQs)
Step-By-Step: Inquiry Questions (IQs)
Questioning the Author (QtA)
Step-By-Step: Questioning the Author (QtA)
Editor Interviews
Step-By-Step: Editor Interviews
Step-By-Step: ReQuest
Socratic Seminars
Step-By-Step: Socratic Seminars
Challenging Texts: Close Readings
Step-By-Step: The Believing and Doubting Game
TASKing in Pairs
Step-By-Step: Tasking in Pairs
Understanding Critical Literacy
Step-By-Step: Critical Literacy in the Classroom
Media Literacy
Principles of Media Literacy
Media Literacy Practices Across The Content Areas
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Designing Literacy into Academically Diverse Content Area Classes
Collaborating for Literacy and Learning: Group Strategies
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
Whole Groups
Whole-Class Reading Methods
Alternatives to Round Robin Reading
Step-By-Step: Think-Alouds in Class
Step-By-Step: How to Induce Imagery
Step-By-Step: How to Conduct a "Read to Discover" Session
Whole-Class Discussions
Cooperative Learning
Principles of Cooperative Learning
Informal Group Methods to Support Learning and Literacy
Cooperative Learning Activities with Integrated Literacy Goals
Step-By-Step: How to Do a Group Investigation
Step-By-Step: How to Do a Group Reading Activity (GRA)
Step-By-Step: How to Do a Jigsaw II Activity
Reciprocal Teaching
A Brief History of Reciprocal Teaching
Original Reciprocal Teaching Model
Step-By-Step: How to Do Basic One-On-One Reciprocal Teaching
Variations of Reciprocal Teaching
Features Contributing to Reciprocal Teaching's Success
Tutoring: Working in Pairs
Peer Tutoring
Step-By-Step: How to Do Paired Reading
Cross-Age Tutoring
Adult-Student Tutoring
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Struggling Readers and English Learners: Addressing Their Cognitive and Cultural Needs
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
Addressing the Frustrations of Struggling Readers
How Serious Are Reading Problems in Our Middle and High Schools?
Research-Based Model for Reading Intervention: A Constellation of Features Providing Guidance in Program Design and Implementation
Fourteen Features of a Research-Based Literacy Intervention Model
Program Matrix for Literacy Intervention/Evaluation
Resources to Support Intervention Programs
Corrective Reading
Read 180
Reading Apprenticeship (RA)
The "Just Read More" Program
English Learners
Federal Law and English Learners
A Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
Toward a Theory of How a Second Language Is Learned
How Long Does It Take for an English Learner to Become Proficient?
Programs for English Language Learners
California's English Learner's' Programs: An Example of the Teacher's Challenge
Principles Guiding English Learners' Instruction
Sheltered English Instruction and Structured English Immersion
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
How Can We Know Which Programs Serve English Learners Best?
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Designing Literacy into Academically Diverse Content Area Classes to Promote Understanding
Double-Entry Journal: Before Reading
Standards-Based Instructional Planning
What Is Standards-Based Instruction?
Accountability Provisions of No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
How Can Teachers Teach to the Standards?
Addressing Adolescent Literacy in All Content Areas
Science Literacy
Math Literacy
Step-By-Step Think-Alouds in Math Class
History/English Collaborative
Literacy and Physical Education
Planning Pyramid for Inquiry and Understanding
What Your Students Will Know or Be Able to Do: Standards/Goals/Wanted Outcomes/Results
Evidence That Would Be Needed to Confirm Acquisition of Knowledge or Skills
Instruction That Would Generate "That Evidence: Mode of Instruction/Strategies/Unit and Lesson Design
Assessment Tools Showing to What Degree Students Have Gained the Knowledge or Skills You Wanted Them to Acquire
How Sally Peterson Built a Pyramid for Inquiry and Understanding
Step-By-Step: Creating Criteria with Students
Double-Entry Journal: After Reading
Name Index
Subject Index
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