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Instructing Students Who Have Literacy Problems

ISBN-10: 0130941956

ISBN-13: 9780130941954

Edition: 4th 2003

Authors: Sandra McCormick

List price: $105.00
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Description:

For undergraduate and graduate reading diagnostics courses. This is the definitive text for understanding the teacher's role in reading remediation. Here is balanced treatment of the two elements of remediation reading: assessment and intervention. And here is an interactive model of the remediation process based on fundamental research into how children and adults acquire literacy. The author blends theory and research with a wealth of practical suggestions for integrating reading, writing, and spelling into remedial reading programs that are practical, effective, and viable for all struggling readers, including special populations.
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Book details

List price: $105.00
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/10/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 538
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.750
Language: English

Foundations of Remedial and Clinical Reading Instruction
Basic Concepts and Definitions in Reading
Types of Reading Programs
Developmental Reading Programs
Corrective Reading Programs
Remedial Reading Programs
Clinical Reading Programs
Other Reading Programs
Roles of Reading Teachers
Assessment and Instructional Tasks
Leadership Tasks
Other Important Definitions
Disabled Reader
Learning Disability
Dyslexia
The Incidence of Reading Disability
Milestones in the History of Remedial and Clinical Reading Instruction
Models of the Reading Process
Cognitive-Processing Models
A Sociocognitive-Processing Model
A General Learning Theory
Conclusion
Reflections
Causes and Correlates of Individual Differences in Reading Ability: Part I
Physiological Factors
Sensory Impairments
Neurological Difficulties
Hereditary Factors
Emotional Factors
Case Study 2-1
Sociocultural Factors
Socioeconomic Status
Ethnic and Racial Identification
Culturally Determined Gender Roles
Conclusion
Reflections
Causes and Correlates of Individual Differences in Reading Ability: Part II
Educational Factors
Lack of Research Information
Lack of Time on Task
Inappropriate Instructional Materials and Techniques
Features of Successful Reading Programs
Cognitive Factors
Intelligence
Preferred Learning Modality
Left and Right Brain Hemispheric Functioning
Memory
Other Cognitive Processes
Language Factors
Phonemic Awareness
Oral Language Knowledge
A Call for Preventive Measures
Reading History
Conclusion
Reflections
Assessment
Assessment for Identification of Reading Problems
Some General Issues Related to Assessment
Formal Testing Versus Informal Testing
High-Stakes Testing Versus Low-Stakes Testing
Appropriate Interpretation of Test Scores
Issues Related to Formal Assessment
Judging the Merits of Test Quality
Advantages of Standardized Tests
Disadvantages of Standardized Tests
Using Standardized Tests With Students Who Speak Nonstandard Dialects and Those With Limited English Proficiency
Steps in Assessment for Identification
Assessing Potential
An Assessment Case STudy
Assessing Present Reading Achievement
Standardized Test Scores: To Convert or Not to Convert
Computing the Discrepancy Between Potential and Achievement
Conclusion
Reflections
Assessment for Verifying General Reading Levels
Informal Reading Inventories
How Did Our Case Study Student Fare on the IRI?
Using an IRI to Analyze Specific Strengths and Weaknesses
Issues Related to Informal Assessment Using IRIs
Advantages of Informal Inventories
Disadvantages of Informal Inventories
Test Instruments Similar to IRIs
Cloze Tests
Preparing a Cloze Test
Administering a Cloze Test
Scoring a Cloze Test
Advantages of Cloze Tests
Disadvantages of Cloze Tests
Computer-Administered Tests
Daily Observations
Oral Reading
Conclusion
Reflections
Assessment for Identifying Specific Strengths and Weaknesses in Reading: Part I
Assessing Prereading Concepts
Assessing Phonemic Awareness
The Yopp-Singer Phoneme Segmentation Test
The Bruce Phoneme Deletion Test
Using a Student's Own Dictated Story for Assessment
Assessing Knowledge of Basic Sight Vocabulary
A Contextual Test of Sight Vocabulary
A Context-Free Test of Sight Vocabulary
Assessing Knowledge of Word Identification Strategies
Formal Measures
Informal Measures
Using the Reading Miscue Inventory
Running Records
Writing Assessment
Spelling Development
Reading and Spelling Connections
Assessing Knowledge of Word Meanings
Formal Measures
Informal Measures
Conclusion
Reflections
Assessment for Identifying Specific Strengths and Weaknesses in Reading: Part II
Assessing Comprehension
Using Conventional Tests
Developing Teacher-Constructed Instruments and Procedures
Assessing Metacognition
Metacognitive Awareness
Monitoring
Strategy Use
Assessing Reading Rate
Formal Measures
Informal Measures
Assessing Attitudes and Interests
Measuring Attitudes Toward Reading
Measuring General Interests
Obtaining Background Information About the Student
Performance Assessment
Classroom Observation
Process Assessment
Portfolio Assessment
Case Study 7-1
Assessment Procedures That Are Not Useful
Conclusion
Reflections
Instructional Interventions
Important Principles of Remedial and Clinical Reading Instruction
Principles
Begin Early
Consider the Benefits of One-to-One Tutoring
Take Into Account the Effects of the Teacher's Instructional Actions During Group Learning
Provide Opportunities for Collaborative Learning
Consider the Implications of Independent Work
Consider Time on Task
Let the Students Read
Encourage Outside Reading
Incorporate High-Quality Literature Into the Program
Model Effective Reading Behaviors
Stimulate Motivation and Engagement
Cooperate With the Classroom Teacher
Enlist Parent Involvement
Let Research Guide Your Instruction
Organizing and Managing Remedial and Clinical Reading Programs
Selecting Instructional Materials and Equipment
Organizing the Classroom or Clinic to Teach
Physical Organization
Learning Centers and Writing Centers
Bulletin Boards
A Pleasant Place to Learn
Planning Schedules for Instruction
Conclusion
Reflections
Word Recognition
The Importance of Recognizing Words at Sight
Sight Word Recognition in the Earliest Stages of Reading
Sight Word Recognition as a Prerequisite and Aid to Word Identification Strategies
Sight Word Recognition Promotes More Word Recognition
Sight Word Recognition and "Irregular" Words
Sight Word Recognition and Comprehension
Sight Word Recognition and Independent Reading Ability
Sight Word Recognition and Interest in Reading
Good Readers Versus Poor Readers
Emergent Literacy
Phases of Word Learning
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
Phase 4
Phase 5
Word Recognition Instruction in Remedial Programs
Case Study 9-1
Synopsis of Assessment Information
Instructional Strategies
Outcomes of Instruction
Case Study 9-2
Synopsis of Assessment Information
Instructional Strategies
Outcomes of Instruction
More About Exposures to Words
More About Contextual Versus Isolated Practice
More About Specific Teaching Activities
Using Language Experience Stories
Other Techniques for Sight Vocabulary Learning
Elimination of Word Confusions
Word Recognition and Oral Reading
Conclusion
Reflections
Word Identification
Phonemic Awareness
Using Writing Experiences to Develop Phonemic Awareness
Moving Into Phase 3 of Word Learning: The Full-Alphabetic Phase
The Value of Word Identification Strategies
Word Identification Strategies in the Full-Alphabetic Phase of Word Learning: Phonic Analysis
Instructional Procedures
Case Study 10-1
Moving Into Phase 4 of Word Learning
Case Study 10-2
Word Identification Strategies in the Full-Alphabetic Phase of Word Learning: Structural Analysis
Instructional Procedures
Case Study 10-3
Context Clues as a Word Identification Strategy
Conclusion
Reflections
Knowledge of Word Meanings
Direct Instruction
Introductory Transactions
Rich Development
Independent Word Learning From Text
Incidental Learning
Fostering Independent Learning
Learning Words From Oral Language Encounters
Conclusion
Reflections
Comprehension of Narrative Text
Comprehension Processes
Narratives
Comprehension Instruction: Narratives
Case Study 12-1
Principles of Good Comprehension Instruction
Introductory Transactions
On-Line Assistance
Culminating Events
Conclusion
Reflections
Comprehension of Expository Text
Expository Text
Comprehension Instruction: Expository Text
Introductory Transactions
On-Line Assistance
Culminating Events
Studying
Metacognition
Metacognitive Strategies
Conclusion
Reflections
Reading Instruction for Special Populations
The Severely Delayed Reader and the Nonreader
General Characteristics of Severely Delayed Readers and Nonreaders
A General Principle: Instruction Should Approximate the Real Act of Reading
Severely Delayed Readers
Instructional Suggestions for Word Learning
Instructional Suggestions for Developing Word Recognition Fluency
Nonreaders
The Multiple-Exposure/Multiple-Context Strategy
The Fernald Approach
Reading Mastery: DISTAR Reading
The Orton-Gillingham Approach
Using Predictable Books
Other Instructional Possibilities
Other Concerns
Conclusion
Reflections
Other Learners With Special Needs
Illiteracy and Functional Illiteracy in Older Youths and Adults
Illiteracy Rates in the United States
Tests to Determine Literacy Levels
School-Based and Nonschool-Based Programs
Instructing Illiterate Older Youths and Adults
Instructing Functionally Illiterate Older Youths and Adults
Intergenerational Literacy
Prison Literacy
Websites for Sources of Information About Established Literacy Programs
Students With Linguistic and Cultural Differences
Linguistic Considerations
Cultural Considerations
Special Considerations for At-Risk Students
Conclusion
Reflections
Supplementary Test Bank: Intelligence Tests
Outlines for Preparing Case Reports
A Compilation of Test Banks From the Text
References
Index