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Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Physical and Numerical Aspects

ISBN-10: 0120887592

ISBN-13: 9780120887590

Edition: 2nd 2011

Authors: Benoit Cushman-Roisin, Jean-Marie Beckers

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This book provides an introductory-level exploration of geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD), the principles governing air and water flows on large terrestrial scales. Physical principles are illustrated with the aid of the simplest existing models, and the computer methods are shown in juxtaposition with the equations to which they apply. It explores contemporary topics of climate dynamics and equatorial dynamics including the Greenhouse Effect, global warming, and the El Nino Southern Oscillation. *long-awaited second edition of the classic text *combines both physical and numerical aspects of geophysical fluid dynamics into a single affordable volume *includes CD-ROM with MatLab codes *explores contemporary topics such as the Greenhouse Effect, global warming and the El Nino Southern Oscillation *biographical and historical notes at the ends of chapters trace the intellectual development of the field
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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Publication date: 10/12/2011
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 875
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 3.278
Language: English

Preface of the First Edition
Importance of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Scales of Motions
Importance of Rotation
Importance of Stratification
Distinction between the Atmosphere and Oceans
Data Acquisition
The Emergence of Numerical Simulations
Scales Analysis and Finite Differences
Higher-Order Methods
Analytical Problems
Numerica Exercises
The Coriolis Force
Rotating Framework of Reference
Unimportance of the Centrifugal Force
Free Motion on a Rotating Plane
Analogy and Physical Interpretation
Acceleration on a Three-Dimensional Rotating Planet
Numerical Approach to Oscillatory Motions
Numerical Convergence and Stability
Predictor-Corrector Methods
Higher-Order Schemes
Analytical Problems
Equations of Fluid Motion
Mass Budget
Momentum Budget78
Equation of State
Energy Budget
Salt and Moisture Budgets
Summary of Governing Equations
Boussinesq Approximation
Flux Formulation and Conservative Form
Finite-Volume Discretization
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Equations Governing Geophysical Flows
Reynolds-Averaged Equations
Eddy Coefficients
Scales of Motion
Recapitulation of Equations Governing Geophysical Flows
important Dimensionless Numbers
Boundary Conditions
Numerical Implementation of Boundary Conditions
Accuracy and Errors
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Diffusive Processes
Sotropic, Homogeneous Turbulence
Turbulent Diffusion
One-Dimensional Numerical Scheme
Numerical Stability Analysis
Other One-.Dimensional Schemes
Multi-Dimensional Numerical Schemes
Numerical Exercises
Transport and Fate
Combination of Advection and Diffusion
Relative Importance of Advection: The Peclet Number
Highly Advective Situations
Centered and Upwind Advection Schemes
Advection-Diffusion with Sources and Sinks
Multidimensional Approach
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Rotation Effects
Geostrophic Flows and Vorticity Dynamics
Homogeneous Geostrophic Flows
Homogeneous Geostrophic Flows over an Irregular Bottom
Generalization to Nongeostrophic Flows
Vorticity Dynamics
Rigid-Lid Approximation
Numerical Solution of the Rigid-Lid Pressure Equation
Numerical Solution of the Streamfunction Equation
Laplacian Inversion
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
The Ekman Layer
Shear Turbulence
Friction and Rotation
The Bottom Ekman Layer
Generalization to Nonuniform Currents
The Ekman Layer over Uneven Terrain
The Surface Ekman Layer
The Ekman Layer in Real Geophysical Flows
Numerical Simulation of Shallow Flows
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Barotropic Waves
Linear Wave Dynamics
The Kelvin Wave
Inertia-Gravity Waves (Poincar� Waves)
Planetary Waves (Rossby Waves)
Topographic Waves
Analogy between Planetary and Topographic Waves
Arakawa's Grids
Numerical Simulation of Tides and Storm Surges
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Barotropic Instability
What Makes a Wave Grow Unstable?
Waves on a Shear Flow
Bounds on Wave Speeds and Growth Rates
A Simple Example
Contour Dynamics
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Stratification Effects
Static Stability
A Note on Atmospheric Stratification
Convective Adjustment
The Importance of Stratification; The Froude Number
Combination of Rotation and Stratification
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Layered Models
From Depth to Density
Layered Models
Potential Vorticity
Two-Layer Models
Wind-Induced Seiches in Lakes
Energy Conservation
Numerical Layered Models
Lagrangian Approach
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Interna! Waves
From Surface to Internal Waves
Internal-Wave Theory
Structure of an Internal Wave
Vertical Modes and Eigenvalue Problems
Lee Waves!
Nonlinear Effects
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercise
Turbulence in Stratified Fluids
Mixing of Stratified Fluids
Instability of a Stratified Shear Flow: The Richardson Number
TurbulencelClosure: k-Models
Other Closures: k- � and k-kl<sub>m</sub>
Mixed-Layer Modeling
Patankar-Type Discretizations
Wind Mixing and Penetrative Convection
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Combined Rotation and Stratification Effects
Dynamics of Stratified Rotating Flows
Thermal Wind
Geostrophic Adjustment
Energetics of Geostrophic Adjustment
Coastal Upwelling
Atmospheric Frontogenesis
Numerical Handling of Large Gradients
Nonlinear Advection Schemes
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Quasi-Geostrophic Dynamics
Simplifying Assumption
Governing Equation
Length and Timescale
Planetary Waves in a Stratified Fluid
Some Nonlinear Effects
Quasi-Geostrophic Ocean Modeling
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Instabilities of Rotating Stratified Flows
Two Types of Instability
Inertial instability
Baroclinic Instability-The Mechanism
Linear Theory of Baroclinic Instability
Heat Transport
Bulk Criteria
Finite-Amplitude Development
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Fronts, jets and Vortices
Fronts and Jets
Geostrophic Turbulence
Simulations of Geostrophic Turbulence Analytical Problems Numerical Exercises
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Special Topics
Atmospheric General Circulation
Climate Versus Weather
Planetary Heat Budget
Direct and Indirect Convective Cells
Atmospheric Circulation Models
Brief Remarks on Weather Forecasting
Cloud Parameterizations
Spectral Methods
Semi-Lagrangian Methods
Analitical Problems
Numerical Exertises
Oceanic General Circulation
What Drives the Oceanic Circulation
Large-Scale Ocean Dynamics (Sverdrup Dynamics)
Western Boundary Currents
Thermohaiine Circulation
Abyssal Circulation
Oceanic Circulation Models
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Equatorial Dynamics
Equatorial Beta Plane
Linear Wave Theory
El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
ENSO Forecasting
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Data Assimilation
Need for Data Assimilation
Kalman Filtering
Inverse Methods
Operational Models
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Web site Information
Elements of Fluid Mechanics
Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates
Equations in Spherical Coordinates
Vorticity and Rotation
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercise
Wave Kinematics
Wavenumber and Wavelength
Frequency, Phase Speed, and Dispersion
Group Velocity and Energy Propagation
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises
Recapitulation of Numerical Schemes
The Tridiagonal System Solver
1D Finite-Difference Schemes of Various Orders
Time-Stepping Algorithms
Partial-Derivatives Finite Differences
Discrete Fourier Transform and Fast Fourier Transform
Analytical Problems
Numerical Exercises