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Terrestrial Ecosystems

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ISBN-10: 0120417553

ISBN-13: 9780120417551

Edition: 2nd 2002

Authors: Jerry M. Melillo, John D. Aber

List price: $360.95
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Covering the complexities and interconnected nature of the world, as well as the impact of mankind on the environment, this interdisciplinary book presents a holistic view of ecosystem function and is designed to help students understand and predict the environmental future of the Earth. The authors provide a complete view of the environment--from the Taiga Forests of interior Alaska to the desert plains of the Serengeti. While retaining the previous edition's basic four-part structure, the authors have reviewed every topic (and consulted the recent literature in each case) in order to present the most complete and accurate picture of the state of ecosystem studies today.
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Book details

List price: $360.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 3/9/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 556
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.640
Language: English

JOHN ABER is Professor of Environmental Science and former Vice President for Research, University of New Hampshire. TOM KELLY is Chief Sustainability Officer and Director, Office of Sustainability Programs. BRUCE MALLORY is Provost and Executive Vice President.

Development of Concepts in Ecosystem Science
Why Study Ecosystems?
Development of Ecosystem Concepts
Delimiting the Ecosystem
Components of Terrestrial Ecosystems
Structure of Terrestrial Ecosystems
Distribution and Characteristics of Major Ecosystem Types
Vegetation Type, Plant Structure, and Major Processes
Soil Processes and Distribution of Soil Types
Major Vegetation and Soil Types of the Earth
Correlations Between Climate and Ecosystem Function
Variation Within Large Climatic Regions
Measurement of Ecosystem Function I: The Carbon Balance
The Carbon Balance of Terrestrial Ecosystems
Measurement of Ecosystem Function II: Nutrient and Water Balances
Nutrient and Water Balances
Methods in Watershed-Ecosystem Studies
Some Results from Watershed-Ecosystem Studies
Studies on Responses to Disturbance
Additional Approaches to Analysis and Synthesis in Ecosystem Studies
Analytical Methods
Gradients in Ecosystem Processes over Space and Time
Systems Analysis and Ecosystem Studies
Computer Modeling: A Synthesis Tool for Ecosystem Studies
Mechanisms: Processes Controlling Ecosystem Structure and Function
Energy, Water, and Carbon Balances over Leaves
The Energy, Carbon, and Water Balance of a Leaf
Chemical and Latent Energy Exchanges
Net Radiation
Sensible Heat Exchange: Conduction and Convection
Structural and Physiological Adaptations
Leaf Structure and Function in Major Ecosystem Types
Water Use and Water Balances in Ecosystems
The Hydrologic Cycle of Ecosystems
The Concept of Water Potential in Soils, Plants, and the Atmosphere
Integrating Water Stress over Time: An Isotope-Based Method
Structure and Dynamics of Canopy Systems
The Canopy Environment
Structured Canopies, Succession, and Light-Use Efficiency
Phenology: Seasonal Variation in Canopy Structure and Function
Models of Canopy Carbon Exchange
Soil Development and the Soil Environment
The Major Elements
The Soil Environment
Soil Chemical Processes Affecting Nutrient Availability
Biological Processes in Soils
Measures of Nutrient Availability
Measures Based on Rate of Mineralization from Organic Matter
Nutrient Uptake and the Biological Modification of Nutrient Availability
Resource Allocation and Net Primary Production
Resource Limitations on Production: A Simplified View
Resource Pools in Plants and Their Allocation
An Ecological Enigma: Why Do Trees Stop Growing?
Chemical Properties of Litter and Soil Organic Matter: The Decomposition Continuum
Organic Matter as a Resource for Microbial Growth
Biochemical Constituents of Litter and Their Rates of Decay
What Is Humus?
Formation of Humus
Decomposition and Stabilization of Humus
Three Examples of New Approaches to "Seeing" the Structure and Dynamics of Soil Organic Matter
Decay Rates and Nutrient Dynamics of Litter and Soil Organic Matter
Litter Decomposition Rates
Decomposition and Nutrient Release from Humus
The Important Role of Soil Organic Matter
Plant-Soil Interactions: Summary Effects on Nutrient Cycles
Comparisons of Generalized Nutrient Cycles
Changes in Solution Chemistry in Ecosystems
Species Effects on Nutrient Distribution and Cycling
Factors Limiting Consumption: Plant-Herbivore Interactions
Consumption as a Fraction of Net Primary Productivity
Structural and Chemical Inhibition of Herbivory
Patterns of Herbivore Inhibitor Production in Plants
Characteristics of Ecosystems with High Herbivore Consumption Rates
Ungulates and Grasses: Coevolution?
Plants, Herbivores, Carnivores, and Cyclic Patterns of Consumption in Nongrassland Systems
The Stabilizing Effects of Territoriality and Predation: Moose and Wolves on Isle Royale
Effects of Vegetative Change and Climate on Irruptions of Insect Populations
The Role of Fire in Carbon and Nutrient Balances
Major Categories of Fire Types
Fire Frequency and Intensity in Different Types of Ecosystems
Effects on Soils and Plants
Plant Adaptations to Different Fire Regimes
Fire-Herbivory Interactions
Fire and the Management of Ecosystems
Synthesis: A Generalized Theory of Ecosystem Dynamics
Successional Theories of Ecosystem Development
Physiological Theories of Ecosystem Development
Comparing Successional and Physiological Theories
Synthesis: Dynamics of Selected Ecosystems
A Fire-Dominated Ecosystem: The Taiga Forests of Interior Alaska
The Taiga Forests of Interior Alaska
Fire and Succession in Taiga Forests
Experimental Modification of Taiga Ecosystems
Summary of Interactions and Relation to General Theory
Implications for Human Use of the Taiga
Boreal Forests and Global Change
The Serengeti: An Herbivore-Dominated Ecosystem
Environment of the Serengeti Region
Resource Partitioning and Use by Herbivores
Resource Partitioning Among Predators
Vegetation-Herbivore-Predator Interactions
Predation Versus Food as Limiting Factors in Herbivore Populations
Perturbations, Succession, and the Dynamics of the Serengeti System
Human Use and Conservation Concerns in the Serengeti
A Gap-Regeneration System: The Northern Hardwood Forests of the United States
The Northern Hardwood Ecosystems of New England
Patterns of Disturbance in Northern Hardwoods and Effects on Resource Availability
Species Adaptations to the Disturbance Gradient: Reproductive and Life History Strategies
Integration of Plant and Biogeochemical Responses to Disturbance
Alternate Endpoints for Succession: Species-Site Interactions
Human Use and History of the Northern Hardwoods Region
Ecosystem Development over Geologic Time: The Tropical Forests of Hawaii
The Hawaiian Islands
Soil Development, Soil Chemistry, and Nutrient Availability
Feedbacks Between Plant Limitations and Nutrient Cycling
Long-Range Nutrient Transport and the Long-Term Maintenance of Productivity
Human Influences and Changes in Ecosystem Function
Application: Human Impacts on Local, Regional, and Global Ecosystems
Ecosystems Managed for Food and Fiber
Malthus and the Race Between Population Growth and Increased Agricultural Production
A Gradient in the Intensity of Management of Arable Land
Management of Native Forests for Timber and Fiber
Plantation Forestry
Conserving Forest Resources
Low-Input/Low-Yield Agriculture: Traditional Practices in the Humid Tropics
Agroforestry: Increasing Yields by Intercropping and Managing the Fallow Forest
Permanent High-Yield Agriculture: An Extreme Example
Methods for Improving Sustainability
Historical Methods of Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics
Characteristics of Sustainable Agroecosystems
Relation to Conservation of Native Ecosystems
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function
Defining Biodiversity
Biodiversity at the Global Scale: Evolution and Extinction
Patterns of Biodiversity in Terrestrial Ecosystems
Human Effects on Biodiversity and Consequences for Ecosystems
Invasive Species and Introductions
Environmental Change and Biodiversity
Effects of Air Pollution on Terrestrial Ecosystems
Air Pollution Sources
Distribution of Air Pollutants
Effects of Air Pollutants on Terrestrial Ecosystems
Effects of Individual Air Pollutants
Forest Decline: The Interactive Effects of Pollutants
Determining "Critical Loads" of Pollution
Environmental Success Stories: Pollution Reductions in the United States and Europe
The Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Climate
Physiological Effects of Carbon Dioxide and Climate
Historical Changes in Land Use and Carbon Storage
A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Carbon Balances: The United States as a Case Study
Predicting Net Primary Production and Carbon Balances in the Future