Adolescence Continuity, Change, and Diversity

ISBN-10: 0073194727

ISBN-13: 9780073194721

Edition: 6th 2007 (Revised)

Authors: Nancy Cobb

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Nancy Cobb’s Adolescence, recognized as one of the leading texts in the field, provides an up-to-date and thorough review of current research and theory. Praised for its clear and engaging writing style, this highly acclaimed text is distinguished by its excellent coverage of gender, ethnicity, and identity, and for its treatment of differences between early and late adolescence. Research Focus Boxes in each chapter provide comprehensive coverage of developmental research methods. Additionally, In More Depth boxes on topics of special interest to students extend the coverage of each chapter.
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Book details

List price: $126.25
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 576
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.486
Language: English

Nancy Cobb grew up in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She divides her time between Connecticut and New York City.

Prefacep. xxi
Defining Adolescents: Who Are They?p. 3
Studying Adolescents: Four Themes to Look for in This Textp. 4
Chapter Overviewp. 4
Who Are Adolescents?p. 5
Adolescents in a Changing Societyp. 6
What Is Adolescence? Three Answersp. 8
Perspectives on Adolescencep. 11
The Historical Perspectivep. 12
The Lifespan Perspectivep. 14
The Contextual Perspectivep. 16
The Constructive Perspectivep. 18
The Faces of Adolescentsp. 18
Research Focus: An Experiment "Who You Pushin', Buddy!" Perceptions of Aggressivenessp. 19
One Face or Two? Sex and Genderp. 20
Faces of Many Colors: Ethnicityp. 22
In More Depth: Socializing African American Childrenp. 24
Peach Fuzz and Whiskers: From Early Adolescence to Emerging Adulthoodp. 24
That's My Face: Identityp. 25
Summaryp. 27
Key Termsp. 19
Theoretical Foundations of Adolescent Developmentp. 31
Chapter Overviewp. 32
Models and Theoriesp. 32
A Model Definedp. 32
A Theory Definedp. 33
The Environmental Modelp. 35
The Organismic Model: The Constructive Perspectivep. 36
Environmental Theoriesp. 38
Focus on the Intellectual: Havighurstp. 38
Explaining the Motivational: Skinnerp. 38
Focus on the Social-Interpersonal: Bandurap. 40
Organismic Theories: Adolescents Constructing Their Worldsp. 41
Focus on the Intellectual: Piaget and Keganp. 41
Focus on the Motivational: Freud and Homeyp. 43
Focus on the Social: Erikson, Chodorow, and Gilliganp. 46
Research Focus: Erikson's Psychohistorical Approach: A Clinician's Notebook from the Dakota Prairiesp. 49
In More Depth: Self-Descriptions of Two Adolescentsp. 51
In More Depth: Choosing Between Responsibility to Self and Responsibility to Othersp. 53
The Worlds of Adolescents: A Contextual Perspectivep. 55
Internalizing the Context: Vygotsky and Rogoffp. 55
The Significance of Context: Protective Versus Risk Factorsp. 58
Development Within a Personal Context: The Lifespanp. 59
Summaryp. 59
Key Termsp. 61
The Biological and Physical Changes of Adolescence: Puberty, Health, and Well-Beingp. 63
Chapter Overviewp. 63
The Endocrine Systemp. 65
Hormonal Activityp. 65
Puberty: A Two-Step Processp. 65
The Physical Changes of Pubertyp. 68
Recollections of an Adolescent Girlp. 69
Recollections of an Adolescent Boyp. 70
The Growth Spurtp. 71
The Reproductive Systemp. 72
Menarchep. 75
Spermarchep. 77
The Secular Trendp. 78
The Psychological and Social Implications of Pubertyp. 79
Heightened Emotionalityp. 79
Relationships with Parentsp. 80
The Timing of Change: Early and Late Maturersp. 81
Early and Late Maturing Boysp. 82
Early and Late Maturing Girlsp. 82
Body Image and Self-Esteemp. 84
Health and Well-Beingp. 87
Nutritionp. 87
Physical Activityp. 88
Overweightp. 88
In More Depth: The Edible Schoolyardp. 90
Health Carep. 90
Povertyp. 91
Research Focus: Randomized Versus Quasi-Experimental Designs: What's in a Name? Communication Across the Agesp. 92
Summaryp. 94
Key Termsp. 97
The Cognitive and Intellectual Changes of Adolescencep. 99
Chapter Overviewp. 100
How Adolescents Thinkp. 101
Thinking Abstractlyp. 101
Thinking Hypotheticallyp. 102
Thinking Logicallyp. 102
Biological Bases to Intellectual Developmentp. 103
Cognitive Development: A Constructive Perspectivep. 104
Piaget and Keganp. 105
Contextual Effects and Formal Thinkingp. 108
A Psychometric Approach to Intelligencep. 109
Intelligence: What Is It?p. 110
A Closer Look: The WAIS-Rp. 110
Intelligence Tests and Culturep. 111
Research Focus: Cross-Sectional and Sequential Designs: Does Intelligence Slip with Age?p. 112
Are There Gender Differences in Intellectual Functioning?p. 114
Beyond IQ: An Information Processing Approachp. 116
Sternberg's Componential Intelligencep. 117
Gardner's Multiple Intelligencesp. 119
Practical Intelligencep. 120
Implications for Everyday Lifep. 121
Pseudostupidityp. 121
An Imaginary Audiencep. 121
Understanding Othersp. 122
New Emotionsp. 122
Arguingp. 123
Doubt and Skepticismp. 124
Implications for the Classroomp. 124
Reasoningp. 124
Can Adolescents Think Like Scientists?p. 125
Study Skills and Knowing What You Don't Knowp. 126
Metaphors and Meaning: When Is a Ship a State?p. 127
Summaryp. 128
Key Termsp. 129
Defining the Self: identity and Intimacyp. 131
Chapter Overviewp. 132
Autonomy and Individuationp. 133
Autonomyp. 133
Individuationp. 135
In More Depth: The Joys of Parenting Early Adolescentsp. 136
Family Interaction and Adolescents' Individuationp. 137
In More Depth: Communication Patterns That Foster Individualismp. 138
In More Depth: Parents' Reflections About Late Adolescencep. 139
Identity: The Normative Crisis of Adolescencep. 139
Variations on a Theme of Identityp. 142
Identity Statusesp. 142
Moratorium and Possible Selvesp. 145
Identity stylesp. 145
Identity: Gender and Ethnicityp. 146
Gender Differences in Identity Formationp. 146
Research Focus: Operationalizing Concepts: What Kind of Decision Maker Are You?p. 148
Contributions of Ethnicity to Identity Developmentp. 150
Achieving a Bicultural Identityp. 153
The Selfp. 154
Self-Concept: Who Am I?p. 154
Self-Esteem: Do I Like Myself?p. 156
Intimacy: Discovering the Self Through Relationshipsp. 159
Knowing Oneselfp. 159
Intimacy with Othersp. 160
Intimacy and Identity: Different Paths to Maturity?p. 161
Developmental Issues in Adolescencep. 163
Dimensions of Relatednessp. 164
Gender Differences in Relatednessp. 164
A New Definition of Maturityp. 167
Summaryp. 168
Key Termsp. 169
The Sexual Self: Close Relationships in Adolescencep. 171
Chapter Overviewp. 172
Sexual Identityp. 172
Gender Stereotypes: The Meaning of Masculine and Femininep. 173
Research Focus: Between-Subjects Design: Date Rapep. 174
Constructing a Sexual Identityp. 176
Sexual Scriptsp. 178
Making Sexual Decisionsp. 178
Talking with Parentsp. 179
Sexual Attitudes and Behaviorsp. 179
Self-Stimulationp. 180
Protective Factorsp. 181
In More Depth: Descriptions of the Experience of Orgasmp. 183
The Sexual Response Cyclep. 183
Sexual Functioning: Myths and Misconceptionsp. 184
Sexual Orientationp. 185
Homosexualityp. 186
Prejudice and Discriminationp. 187
Biological and Psychosocial Bases of Sexual Attractionp. 187
Sexual Health: Risks and Responsibilitiesp. 159
Contraceptionp. 189
Sexually Transmitted Diseasesp. 191
Teenage Pregnanciesp. 198
Sex Education: What Adolescents Need to Knowp. 201
The Effectiveness of School Programsp. 202
Comprehensive and Service Learning Programsp. 203
Abstinence-Only Programsp. 205
Summaryp. 205
Key Termsp. 207
Adolescents in the Family: Changing Roles and Relationshipsp. 209
Chapter Overviewp. 209
Changing Relationships with Parentsp. 210
Turmoil and Changep. 210
Calm and Continuityp. 210
Research Focus: Sampling: How Emotional Are Adolescents?p. 211
Change and Continuityp. 211
Negotiating Family Conflictsp. 214
Emotional Climate of Familiesp. 218
Parents and Adolescentsp. 219
Styles of Parentingp. 219
Styles of Parenting and Ethnicityp. 221
The Contexts of Parenting: Genetic and Environmental Contributionsp. 224
Whose Identity Crisis? Parents and Middle Agep. 226
Families and Adolescent Developmentp. 227
Family Factors in Developmentp. 227
Families and Ethnicityp. 229
In More Depth: What Parents Wish They Had Known About Adolescencep. 230
Siblingsp. 231
Families in Transitionp. 232
Changing Family Structuresp. 232
Dual-Earner Familiesp. 238
Summaryp. 240
Key Termsp. 241
Adolescents and Their Friendsp. 243
Chapter Overviewp. 243
The Importance of Friendshipsp. 245
Group Identityp. 245
Gossip and Self-Disclosurep. 246
Friends and Well-Beingp. 248
Parents and Well-Beingp. 249
Friendship Patternsp. 250
Age Differences in Friendship Patternsp. 251
Social Competencep. 253
Social Status: Who's In and Who's Notp. 254
Interethnic Friendshipsp. 256
Gender and Friendshipsp. 259
Friendships and Sexual-Minority Youthp. 259
The Peer Groupp. 259
Cliques and Crowdsp. 260
Crushes and Datingp. 262
Research Focus: Longitudinal Design: Friendship Patternsp. 263
A Youth Culturep. 265
Schoolp. 265
Conformity and Peer Pressurep. 266
Valuesp. 267
Deviant Behaviorp. 268
Youth Organizationsp. 271
Summaryp. 271
Key Termsp. 273
Adolescents in the Schoolsp. 275
Chapter Overviewp. 276
Educating Adolescentsp. 276
Structuring the Learning Environmentp. 276
Preparing for High School: Junior High or Middle Schoolp. 277
What Makes Schools Effective?p. 279
Skilled Teachersp. 280
In More Depth: Science in the Classroom: Analysis of a Frisbeep. 281
Smaller Schools and Smaller Communities for Learningp. 282
School Climatep. 282
Full-Service Schoolsp. 283
Parental Involvementp. 283
School Violencep. 283
Bullies and Victimsp. 284
In More Depth: Columbine: The Imaginary Audience and a Real Stagep. 286
In More Depth: Definition and Forms of Bullyingp. 289
Teaching Peacep. 289
Education for Allp. 290
Gender in the Classroomp. 290
Multicultural Educationp. 291
Examining the Differencesp. 294
Academic Achievementp. 296
Socioeconomic Statusp. 297
Academic Trackingp. 297
Proficiency in Basic Subjectsp. 299
Academic Successp. 299
Patterns of Achievementp. 302
Gender Differences and Achievementp. 303
Adolescents at the Edgep. 305
Gifted Adolescentsp. 306
In More Depth: Some Characteristics of Gifted Studentsp. 307
Adolescents with Learning Disabilitiesp. 307
Research Focus: Within-Subjects Design and Attention Deficit Disorder: "Can't I Stay Home? I Think I Don't Feel Well."p. 308
Dropping Outp. 310
Measuring Successp. 313
Testing and Public Policyp. 314
Summaryp. 314
Key Termsp. 317
Work, Careers, and College: New Decisions, New Ways of Thinkingp. 319
Chapter Overviewp. 320
Adolescents at Workp. 321
Continuity of Attitudes Toward Work over the Lifespanp. 321
Part-Time Employmentp. 321
Adolescents Who Drop Out and Employmentp. 325
Choosing a Vocationp. 327
Social-Cognitive Theoryp. 327
Research Focus: Correlational Research: Hangin' out on a Friday Nightp. 328
Ginzburg: Vocational Stagesp. 330
Super: Careers and the Self-Conceptp. 332
Holland: Personality Types and Workp. 333
Joining the Workforcep. 335
Job Availabilityp. 335
Gender in the Workplacep. 336
Minorities and Workp. 339
Intervention Programs: Strategies for Changep. 340
Counselors as Change Agentsp. 341
Irrational Beliefs and Maladaptive Mythsp. 341
In More Depth: Myths That Interface with Adaptive Career Decision Makingp. 342
Adolescents and College: Thinking About Ideasp. 343
New Solutions to Old Problems: Structural Analytical Thinkingp. 343
How College Changes the Way Adolescents Thinkp. 345
Gender Differences in Intellectual Developmentp. 347
Knowledge of One's Culture: Everybody's an Expertp. 350
Adolescent Decision Makingp. 351
Personal Effectivenessp. 351
Dealing with Everyday Problemsp. 352
Summaryp. 354
Key Termsp. 355
Facing the Future Values in Transitionp. 357
Chapter Overviewp. 358
The Values of Adolescentsp. 358
Values: Adolescents and Parentsp. 358
Values: Gender and Racep. 359
Values and Culturep. 360
Values and Identityp. 360
A Developing Moralityp. 364
Social-Cognitive Theory and Moral Developmentp. 364
Internalizing Standardsp. 364
Considering Intentionsp. 364
Questioning Valuesp. 365
Acting Morallyp. 365
Moral Virtuesp. 366
Critique of Social-Cognitive Theoryp. 366
Kohlberg: The Development of Moral Reasoningp. 367
In More Depth: Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoningp. 368
Preconventional Moral Reasoningp. 368
In More Depth: Rachel's Dilemmap. 369
Conventional Moral Reasoning: Internalizing Standardsp. 369
Research Focus: Statistical Tests of Significance: What Do a Huai Haizi, a Warui Ko, and a Bad Kid Have in Common?p. 370
Postconventional Moral Reasoning: Questioning Valuesp. 371
When Justice May Not Be Enough: Forgivenessp. 372
Critique of Kohlberg's Theoryp. 374
Gilligan: An Ethic of Carep. 376
Caring for Self (Survival)p. 376
Caring for Others (Goodness)p. 377
Caring for Self and Others (Truth)p. 378
Critique of Gilligan's Theoryp. 379
Comparison of Kohlberg's and Gilligan's Approachesp. 380
Freud: Morality and the Superegop. 381
Critique of Freud's Theoryp. 381
Adolescents' Religious Beliefsp. 382
The Importance of Religionp. 386
Summaryp. 387
Key Termsp. 389
The Problems of Youthp. 391
Chapter Overviewp. 392
Alienation and the Failure to Copep. 392
Runawaysp. 393
Support for Adolescent Runaways and Parentsp. 394
In More Depth: Types of Maltreatmentp. 395
Maltreatment: Abuse and Neglectp. 395
Juvenile Delinquencyp. 397
Age Differences in Delinquencyp. 397
Gender Differences in Delinquencyp. 398
Ethnic Differences in Delinquencyp. 398
Delinquency and Social Classp. 398
Understanding Delinquencyp. 399
Gangsp. 400
Youth and Violencep. 403
Adolescents and Drugsp. 405
What Is Dependence?p. 406
Alcoholp. 406
Cigarettesp. 406
In More Depth: Criteria for Drug Dependencep. 407
Marijuanap. 407
Age, Ethnicity, and Genderp. 408
Patterns of Drug Usep. 409
Risk and Protective Factorsp. 409
Trends Over Timep. 410
Prevention Programsp. 410
Eating Disordersp. 413
Bulimia and Anorexiap. 414
Overweightp. 415
Research Focus: Bias and Blind Controls: Eating Disordersp. 416
Depressionp. 417
Three Depressive Disordersp. 417
Masked Depressionp. 418
Suicidep. 418
Gender and Ethnic Differencesp. 419
Warning Signsp. 419
Risk Factorsp. 420
In More Depth: A Poem Written by a 15-Year-Old Boy Two Years Before Committing Suicidep. 421
Counseling and Preventionp. 421
Summaryp. 423
Key Termsp. 425
Positive Development in Adolescence: Meeting the Challenges and Making It Workp. 427
Chapter Overviewp. 429
Protective Factors in Adolescencep. 429
Familiesp. 430
Research Focus: Archival Research: Racial Socialization-Survival Tactics in a White Society?p. 432
Communitiesp. 434
Schoolsp. 435
Personal Strengths: Temperament, Competence, and Religionp. 436
Stress and Copingp. 436
How Adolescents Cope with Stressp. 437
Gender and Ethnicityp. 438
Learning Effective Coping Strategiesp. 438
Beyond Coping: Caring and Prosocial Behaviorp. 440
Positive Youth Developmentp. 441 Love 443
Summaryp. 444
Key Termsp. 445
Studying Adolescence: Research Methods and Issuesp. 447
Chapter Overviewp. 447
Research Strategiesp. 449
Number of Participantsp. 449
Degree of Controlp. 450
Developmental Research: Issues and Designsp. 454
Correlational Researchp. 454
Cross-Sectional Designsp. 455
Longitudinal Designsp. 456
Sequential Designsp. 458
Path Analysisp. 458
Response Measures in Developmental Researchp. 459
Dependent Variablesp. 459
Types of Response Measuresp. 460
Research Issuesp. 460
Internal and External Validityp. 460
Theory-Guided Researchp. 461
Operationalizing Conceptsp. 461
Samplingp. 461
Bias and Blind Controlsp. 462
Tests of Significancep. 462
Ethicsp. 463
Research Designsp. 463
Between-Subjects Designsp. 463
Within-Subjects Designsp. 463
Matched-Subjects Designsp. 464
Factorial Designsp. 465
Summaryp. 465
Key Termsp. 466
Glossaryp. G-1
Referencesp. R-1
Creditsp. C-1
Author Indexp. I-1
Subject Indexp. I-13
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.
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