Introduction to Forensic Science and Criminalistics

ISBN-10: 0072988487

ISBN-13: 9780072988482

Edition: 2008

Authors: Henry C. Lee, Robert E. Gaensslen, Howard A. Harris

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Offering an introductory-level examination of the field of forensic science, this book presents a variety of interesting cases from the authors' own case files, along with useful photographs to help illustrate the material.
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Book details

List price: $159.40
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 1/23/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 448
Size: 9.00" wide x 11.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.860
Language: English

Introduction to Forensic Science
What Is Forensic Science?
Science in the Service of the Law
Value of Forensic Science
Corpus Delicti-Elements of a Crime
Support or Disprove Statements by Witnesses, Victims, or Suspects
Identify Substances or Materials
Identify Persons
Provide Investigative Leads
Establish Linkages or Exclusions
A Brief History of Forensic Science
Development of Forensic Science Laboratories and Professional Organizations
Nature of Science and the Scientific Method
Careful Observation
Make Logical Suppositions to Explain the Observations
Hypothesis Testing-Controlled Experiments
Refining the Hypothesis-Theories and Natural Laws
The Scientific Method and Its Applicability to Forensic Science and to Investigation
Forensic Science Specialties
Forensic Pathology
Forensic Entomology
Forensic Odontology
Forensic Anthropology
Forensic Toxicology
Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology
Forensic Engineering
Forensic Computer Science
Forensic/Investigative Technologies
Elements of Forensic Evidence Analysis-The Types of Results Forensic Scientists Produce
Evidence Recognition
Classification (Identification)
Physical Evidence and the Legal System
How Physical Evidence Is Produced
Changes Induced at a Scene
Imprints or Indentations
Exchange of Material upon Contact
Classification of Physical Evidence
Utilization of Physical Evidence
Provide Investigative Leads-Helping Develop MO and Leads from Databases
Establish Linkages or Exclusions
Corroboration-Credibility-Supporting or Disproving Statements
Identification of Persons
Identification of Substances or Materials
Establishing a Basis for a Crime and Criminal Prosecution-Corpus Delicti
The Physical Evidence Process
Recognition-Most Critical and Requires a Trained Observer
Documentation and Marking for Identification
Collection, Packaging, and Preservation
Laboratory Analysis
Reporting and Testimony
Origin of Legal Systems
The Criminal Justice System and Process
Scientific and Technical Evidence Admissibility and the Expert Witness
Crime Scene Procedures, Techniques, and Analysis
Crime Scene Processing and Analysis
Processing versus Analysis
Types of Scenes
Initial Actions and Scene Security
Steps in Scene Processing and Analysis
Scene Survey and Evidence Recognition
Scene Searches
Evidence Collection and Preservation
Release of the Scene
Scene Survey and Evidence Recognition
Scene Searches
Video Recording
Duty to Preserve
Evidence Collection and Preservation
Collection Methods
Numbering and Evidence Description Methods
Packaging Options
Proper Controls and Comparison Standards
Laboratory Submission
Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstructions
Laboratory Analysis and Comparisons of Evidence
Medical Examiner's Reports in Death Cases
Reconstruction: Putting It All Together
Reconstruction versus Reenactment
Digital Evidence and Forensic Computer Science
Examination and Interpretation of Patterns for Reconstruction
Pattern Evidence: Reconstruction Patterns and Individualization Patterns
Most Reconstruction Patterns Are Crime Scene Patterns
Importance of Documentation of Reconstruction Patterns
Blood Spatter Patterns
Basis of Blood Pattern Interpretation
Velocity and Impact Angle
Various Blood Spatter Patterns
Factors Affecting Blood Patterns and Their Interpretation
Glass Fracture Patterns
Determining the Side of the Glass Where Force Was Applied
Determining the Order of Gunshots Fired Through Glass
Track and Trail Patterns
Tire and Skid Mark Patterns
Clothing and Article or Object Patterns
Gunshot Residue Patterns
Projectile Trajectory Patterns
Fire Burn Patterns
Modus Operandi Patterns and Profiling
Wound, Injury, and Damage Patterns
Physical Pattern Evidence and Technological Examinations
Examination of Physical Pattern Evidence
Classification/Types of Physical Patterns for Comparison
Physical Matches
Impression and Striation Mark
Shape and Form
General Principles in Physical Pattern Comparisons
The Process of Identification
Physical Matching
Exclusions, Inconclusives, and Insufficient Detail
Physical Pattern Comparisons and the Daubert Criteria
Impression and Striation Mark Comparisons
Impressions: Imprints and Indentations
Collection and Preservation of Impressions
Footwear, Tire, and Other Impressions
Clarification and Contrast Improvement Techniques
Weapon, Tool, and Object Marks
Shape and Form Comparisons
Other Patterns
Concluding Comments
Fingerprints and Other Personal Identification Patterns
Fingerprints-An Old and Traditionally Valuable Type of Evidence
About Fingerprints-Their Nature and the History and Development of Their Use
Nature of Fingerprints
History and Development of the Use of Fingerprints
Fingerprint Classification, Management of Large Files, AFISs
Classification and Large Files
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFISs)
Collection and Preservation of Fingerprint Evidence
Latent Prints and Their Development
Types of Evidentiary Fingerprints
Development of Latent Fingerprints
Fingerprint Comparison and Identification
The Fingerprint Identification Profession
Other Patterns for Person Identification
Palm and Sole Prints
Bite Marks
Skeletal Features
Lip and Ear Prints
Voice Identification
Identification of Human Remains-Handling of Mass Disasters
Questioned Document Examination
Types of Document Evidence
Development of Handwriting
Writing Process
Recognition, Collection, and Preservation of Document Evidence
Handwriting Comparison
Class and Individual Characteristics
Importance of Known Standards
Writing Mechanics
Legal Status of Underlying Science
Nonhandwriting Document Examinations
Typewriter and Printer Comparisons
Copying Machines
Reconstruction of Document Events
Alterations and Erasures
Charred Documents and Indented Writing
Age Determination
Toolmarks and Firearms
Class and Individual Characteristics
Residue from Softer Object on Tool
Types of Toolmarks
Collection of Toolmarks
Examination and Comparison of Toolmarks
Firearms Examination-Background
Firearms Function-the Firing Train
Types of Firearms
Collection and Preservation of Firearms Evidence
Firearms Evidence Examination and Comparison
Physical Examination of Firearm for Safety and Physical Condition
Test for Functionality and to Obtain Control Bullets and Cases
Bullet and Cartridge or Shotshell Case Comparisons-the Comparison Microscope
Association of Cartridges or Bullets to Firearm or Maker Using Databases
Comparison of Badly Damaged Projectiles or Cases
Use of Firearms Evidence for Reconstruction
Recovered Firearm and Fired Evidence in Reconstruction
Muzzle to Target Distance-Powder Pattern
GSR on Hands-Dermal Nitrate, Lift, Swab, Tape
Serial Number Restoration
Serial Number Obliteration Methods-Defacing
Recovery of Serial Number-Clean, Smooth, Etch
The Firearms and Toolmark Examiner Profession
Biological Evidence
Blood and Physiological Fluid Evidence: Evaluation and Initial Examination
How Biological Evidence Analysis Has Changed Because of DNA Typing
Nature of Blood
Collection, Preservation, and Packaging of Biological (Including Blood) Evidence
Blood or Buccal Swab from Known Person
Biological Evidence from Scenes
Test Controls, Substratum Comparison Specimens, and Contamination Issues
Know (Exemplar or Reference) Controls
Alibi (Alternative) Known Control
Blank Control
Substratum Comparison Specimens
Initial Examination of and for Biological Evidence
Forensic Identification of Blood
Preliminary or Presumptive Tests for Blood
Confirmatory Tests for Blood
Species Determination
Forensic Identification of Body Fluids
Identification of Semen
Identification of Vaginal "Secretions," Saliva, and Urine
Forensic Investigation of Sexual Assault Cases
Coordination of Effort-SANEs and SARTs
Initial Investigation
The Forensic Scientist's Role
Medical Examination
Evidence Collection and Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kits
Types of Sexual Assault Cases and Their Investigation
Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault-"Date-Rape" Drugs
Blood and Body Fluid Individuality: Traditional (pre-DNA) Approaches
The Classical or Conventional (pre-DNA) Genetic Markers
How Does Typing Genetic Markers Help "Individualize" a Biological Specimen?
DNA Analysis and Typing
Genetics, Inheritance, Genetic Markers
DNA-Nature and Functions
Where DNA Is Found in the Body-Nuclear (Genomic) and Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for DNA Typing
Development and Methods of DNA Analysis
Isolation (Extraction) of DNA
The Beginning-RFLP
The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-The First PCR-Based DNA Typing Methods
Current DNA Typing Methods-Short Tandem Repeats (STRs)
The Power of DNA to Individualize Biological Evidence
Databasing and CODIS
Applications of Forensic DNA Typing
Newer DNA Technologies
Strengths, Limitations, Promise, Hype
Chemical and Materials Evidence
Arson and Explosives
Fire and Arson
The Combustion Reaction-Flaming Combustion and Glowing Combustion
Necessary Components for Combustion-Fuel, Oxygen, and Ignition
Nature of Fuels-Gaseous, Liquid, and Solid
Characteristics of Fuels-Measures of Combustibility
Investigating Suspicious Fires-Arsonists' Motives
Economic Motives
Revenge, Vandalism, Intimidation, and Other Motives
Investigation of Fire Scenes
Burn Patterns
Search for Point or Points of Origin
Search for Causes
Recovery of Ignitable Liquid Residues from Suspicious Fire Scenes
Reasons for Finding Accelerant Residues
Search for Places to Collect Debris-Sniffers and Arson Dogs
Collection of Debris Samples and Proper Packaging
Collection of Samples Other Than Debris
Collection of Other Physical Evidence
Laboratory Analysis of Debris and Other Samples-Recovery of Ignitable Liquid Residues
Preparation of Liquid Samples
Four Primary Techniques for Preparation of Debris Samples
Laboratory Examination of Prepared Samples
Examination of Criminalistics Evidence Collected
Explosives and Explosion Incidents
Characteristics of Explosives and Explosions
Molecular Fragmentation to Produce Gaseous Products
Rapid Expansion
The Three Major Classes of Explosives
Low Explosives
Primary High Explosives
Secondary High Explosives
The Explosive Train or Device
The Role of the Scene Investigator
Laboratory Analysis of Explosives and Explosive Residues
Examination of the Unexploded Device
Examination of the Exploded Device and Associated Debris
Examination of the Device or Debris for Other Physical Evidence
Drugs and Drug Analysis and Forensic Toxicology
Nature of Drugs and Drug Abuse
Working Definition of a Drug
Nature of Drug Dependence
Drugs and Society-Controlled Substances
Major Classes of Abused Drugs
Opiates or Narcotic Drugs
Depressants, Hypnotics, and Tranquilizers
Club Drugs
Athletic Performance Enhancers
Controlled Substance Laws
Analysis of Controlled Substances in the Forensic Laboratory
Screening Tests
Isolation and Separation
Microcrystal Tests
Chromatography (Separations)
Qualitative versus Quantitative Analysis
Forensic Toxicology-Antimortem and Postmortem
Forensic Toxicology on Samples from the Living
Postmortem Toxicology
Classes of Poisons
Alcohol and Drugs and Driving
Driving While Impaired by Alcohol
Other Drugs and Driving
Materials Evidence
Introduction to Materials Evidence
Transfer Materials Evidence Is Used to Establish or Disprove Connections
Materials Evidence Can Be Transferred or Deposited
Clothing and Vehicles Are the Most Common Sources of Materials Evidence
Collection Methods for Materials Evidence
Collection Without Sampling
Use of Forceps-Always the First Approach in the Lab
Mechanical Dislocation-Shaking or Scraping of Surface Material
Tape Lifts-Sticky but Not Too Sticky
Laboratory Examination of Trace and Transfer Evidence
Initial Physical Examination-Stereomicroscope, Hand Lens Microscopy
Instrumental Comparison and Identification-Micro FTIR and SEM/EDX
Materials Evidence Comparisons-Individualization, Inclusion, and Exclusion
Some Common Types of Materials Evidence
Biological Materials
Wood and Paper
Building Materials
Metallic Residues
Paint and Other Coatings
Cosmetics and Beauty Products
Soil and Dust
Discussion of Major Categories of Materials Evidence
Human and Animal Hair
Photo Credits
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