Social Psychology

ISBN-10: 007291694X

ISBN-13: 9780072916942

Edition: 8th 2005

Authors: David G. Myers

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Book details

Edition: 8th
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Binding: Hardcover
Weight: 4.048
Language: English

David G. Myers is John Dirk Werkman Professor of Psychology at Hope College.

Prefacep. x
Introducing Social Psychologyp. 3
Social Psychology and Related Disciplinesp. 6
Social Psychology and Sociologyp. 6
Social Psychology and Personality Psychologyp. 6
Social Psychology and Biologyp. 7
Levels of Explanationp. 7
Social Psychology and Human Valuesp. 8
Obvious Ways in Which Values Enter Psychologyp. 9
Not-So-Obvious Ways in Which Values Enter Psychologyp. 9
I Knew It All Along: Is Social Psychology Simply Common Sense?p. 13
How We Do Social Psychologyp. 17
Forming and Testing Hypothesesp. 17
Correlational Research: Detecting Natural Associationsp. 19
Experimental Research: Searching for Cause and Effectp. 25
Generalizing from Laboratory to Lifep. 31
Personal Postscript: Why I Wrote This Bookp. 32
Social Thinking
The Self in a Social Worldp. 37
Self-Concept: Who Am I?p. 38
At the Center of Our Worlds: Our Sense of Selfp. 39
Development of the Social Selfp. 41
Self and Culturep. 43
Self-Knowledgep. 46
Perceived Self-Controlp. 53
Self-Efficacyp. 54
Locus of Controlp. 54
Learned Helplessness Versus Self-Determinationp. 55
Self-Serving Biasp. 58
Explaining Positive and Negative Eventsp. 58
Can We All Be Better than Average?p. 61
Unrealistic Optimismp. 62
False Consensus and Uniquenessp. 64
Other Self-Serving Tendenciesp. 64
Self-Esteem Motivationp. 66
The Dark Side of Self-Esteemp. 68
Reflections on Self-Efficacy and Self-Serving Biasp. 69
Self-Presentationp. 73
False Modestyp. 73
Self-Handicappingp. 74
Impression Managementp. 75
Personal Postscript: Twin Truths--The Perils of Pride, the Power of Positive Thinkingp. 77
Social Beliefs and Judgmentsp. 79
Explaining Othersp. 80
Attributing Causality: To the Person or the Situationp. 80
The Fundamental Attribution Errorp. 84
Why Do We Make the Attribution Error?p. 88
How Fundamental Is the Fundamental Attribution Error?p. 91
Why We Study Attribution Errorsp. 93
Constructing Interpretations and Memoriesp. 94
Perceiving and Interpreting Eventsp. 94
Belief Perseverancep. 97
Constructing Memoriesp. 99
Judging Othersp. 103
Thinking Without Awarenessp. 104
Judgmental Overconfidencep. 106
Heuristicsp. 110
Illusory Thinkingp. 113
Mood and Judgmentp. 116
Self-Fulfilling Beliefsp. 118
Teacher Expectations and Student Performancep. 118
Getting from Others What We Expectp. 120
Conclusionsp. 123
Personal Postscript: Reflecting on Intuition's Powers and Limitsp. 126
Behavior and Attitudesp. 129
Do Attitudes Determine Behavior?p. 131
Are We All Hypocrites?p. 131
When Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?p. 132
Does Behavior Determine Attitudes?p. 136
Role Playingp. 137
Saying Becomes Believingp. 139
The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenonp. 140
Evil Acts and Attitudesp. 142
Interracial Behavior and Racial Attitudesp. 144
Social Movementsp. 145
Why Do Actions Affect Attitudes?p. 147
Self-Presentation: Impression Managementp. 147
Self-Justification: Cognitive Dissonancep. 148
Self-Perceptionp. 152
Comparing the Theoriesp. 157
Personal Postscript: Changing Ourselves Through Actionp. 162
Social Influence
Genes, Culture, and Genderp. 167
Human Nature and Cultural Diversityp. 168
Evolution and Behaviorp. 168
Culture and Behaviorp. 169
Social Rolesp. 175
Gender Similarities and Differencesp. 178
Independence Versus Connectednessp. 179
Social Dominancep. 182
Aggressionp. 184
Sexualityp. 184
Evolution and Gender: Doing What Comes Naturally?p. 186
Gender and Mating Preferencesp. 186
Gender and Hormonesp. 189
Reflections on Evolutionary Psychologyp. 190
Culture and Genderp. 192
Gender Roles Vary with Culturep. 193
Gender Roles Vary Over Timep. 194
Peer-Transmitted Culturep. 195
Conclusionsp. 197
Biology and Culturep. 197
The Great Lesson of Social Psychologyp. 199
Personal Postscript: Should We View Ourselves as Products or Architects of Our Social Worlds?p. 200
Conformityp. 203
Classic Studiesp. 205
Sherif's Studies of Norm Formationp. 205
Asch's Studies of Group Pressurep. 209
Milgram's Obedience Experimentsp. 211
What Breeds Obedience?p. 214
Reflections on the Classic Studiesp. 217
When Do People Conform?p. 223
Group Sizep. 224
Unanimityp. 224
Cohesionp. 225
Statusp. 226
Public Responsep. 227
No Prior Commitmentp. 227
Why Conform?p. 229
Who Conforms?p. 231
Personalityp. 231
Culturep. 233
Resisting Social Pressurep. 234
Reactancep. 234
Asserting Uniquenessp. 236
Personal Postscript: On Being an Individual Within Communityp. 238
Persuasionp. 241
The Paths to Persuasionp. 243
The Elements of Persuasionp. 247
Who Says? The Communicatorp. 247
What Is Said? The Message Contentp. 251
How Is It Said? The Channel of Communicationp. 258
To Whom Is It Said? The Audiencep. 262
Case Studies in Persuasion: Cult Indoctrinationp. 268
Attitudes Follow Behaviorp. 269
Persuasive Elementsp. 270
Group Effectsp. 272
Resisting Persuasion: Attitude Inoculationp. 274
Strengthening Personal Commitmentp. 274
Case Studies: Large-Scale Inoculation Programsp. 275
Implicationsp. 278
Personal Postscript: Being Open but not Naivep. 278
Group Influencep. 281
What Is a Group?p. 282
Social Facilitationp. 282
The Presence of Othersp. 282
Crowding: The Presence of Many Othersp. 285
Why Are We Aroused in the Presence of Others?p. 287
Social Loafingp. 289
Many Hands Make Light Workp. 290
Social Loafing in Everyday Lifep. 292
Deindividuationp. 294
Doing Together What We Would Not Do Alonep. 295
Diminished Self-Awarenessp. 299
Group Polarizationp. 300
The Case of the "Risky Shift"p. 300
Do Groups Intensify Opinions?p. 302
Explaining Polarizationp. 304
Groupthinkp. 308
Symptoms of Groupthinkp. 309
Critiquing Groupthinkp. 311
Preventing Groupthinkp. 314
Groupthink and Group Influencep. 315
Minority Influencep. 317
Consistencyp. 318
Self-Confidencep. 319
Defections from the Majorityp. 319
Is Leadership Minority Influence?p. 320
Personal Postscript: Are Groups Bad for Us?p. 322
Social Relations
Prejudice: Disliking Othersp. 327
The Nature and Power of Prejudicep. 328
What Is Prejudice?p. 328
How Pervasive Is Prejudice?p. 330
Social Sources of Prejudicep. 341
Social Inequalitiesp. 341
Social Identityp. 346
Conformityp. 350
Institutional Supportsp. 350
Emotional Sources of Prejudicep. 352
Frustration and Aggression: The Scapegoat Theoryp. 352
Personality Dynamicsp. 354
Cognitive Sources of Prejudicep. 356
Categorizationp. 357
Distinctivenessp. 359
Attribution: Is It a Just World?p. 364
Cognitive Consequences of Stereotypesp. 367
Personal Postscript: Can We Reduce Prejudice?p. 372
Aggression: Hurting Othersp. 375
What Is Aggression?p. 377
Theories of Aggressionp. 378
Is Aggression Biological?p. 378
Is Aggression a Response to Frustration?p. 382
Is Aggression Learned Social Behavior?p. 385
Influences on Aggressionp. 390
Aversive Incidentsp. 390
Arousalp. 394
Aggression Cuesp. 395
Media Influences: Pornography and Sexual Violencep. 396
Media Influences: Televisionp. 401
Group Influencesp. 409
Reducing Aggressionp. 413
Catharsis?p. 413
A Social Learning Approachp. 414
Personal Postscript: Reforming a Violent Culturep. 416
Attraction and Intimacy: Liking and Loving Othersp. 419
Friendshipsp. 421
Proximityp. 421
Physical Attractivenessp. 426
Similarity Versus Complementarityp. 436
Liking Those Who Like Usp. 440
Relationship Rewardsp. 444
Lovep. 447
Passionate Lovep. 447
Companionate Lovep. 450
Maintaining Close Relationshipsp. 453
Attachmentp. 453
Equityp. 455
Self-Disclosurep. 457
Ending Relationshipsp. 462
Who Divorces?p. 463
The Detachment Processp. 464
Personal Postscript: Making Lovep. 466
Altruism: Helping Othersp. 469
Why Do We Help?p. 470
Social Exchangep. 471
Social Normsp. 476
Evolutionary Psychologyp. 478
Comparing and Evaluating Theories of Altruismp. 480
When Will We Help?p. 481
Situational Influences: Number of Bystandersp. 483
Situational Influences: Helping When Someone Else Doesp. 489
Situational Influences: Time Pressuresp. 491
Personal Influences: Feelingsp. 491
Personal Influences: Personality Traitsp. 496
Personal Influences: Religiosityp. 497
Whom Do We Help?p. 499
Genderp. 499
Similarityp. 500
How Can We Increase Helping?p. 502
Undoing the Restraints on Helpingp. 502
Socializing Altruismp. 505
Personal Postscript: Taking Social Psychology into Lifep. 509
Conflict and Peacemakingp. 511
Conflictp. 512
Social Dilemmasp. 512
Competitionp. 520
Perceived Injusticep. 522
Misperceptionp. 524
Peacemakingp. 531
Contactp. 531
Cooperationp. 533
Communicationp. 543
Conciliationp. 549
Personal Postscript: Communitarianismp. 552
Modules: Social Psychology Applied
Social Psychology in the Clinicp. 557
Making Clinical Judgmentsp. 558
Illusory Correlationsp. 558
Hindsight and Overconfidencep. 559
Self-Confirming Diagnosesp. 560
Clinical Versus Statistical Predictionp. 562
Implicationsp. 564
Social Cognition in Problem Behaviorsp. 566
Social Cognition and Depressionp. 566
Social Cognition and Lonelinessp. 571
Social Cognition and Anxietyp. 573
Social Cognition and Illnessp. 575
Social-Psychological Approaches to Treatmentp. 581
Inducing Internal Change through External Behaviorp. 582
Breaking Vicious Cyclesp. 582
Maintaining Change through Internal Attributions for Successp. 584
Social Support and Well-Beingp. 587
Close Relationships and Healthp. 587
Close Relationships and Happinessp. 588
Personal Postscript: Enhancing Happinessp. 592
Social Psychology in Courtp. 595
Eyewitness Testimonyp. 597
How Persuasive Is Eyewitness Testimony?p. 597
How Accurate Are Eyewitnesses?p. 599
The Misinformation Effectp. 600
Retellingp. 603
Feedback to Witnessesp. 603
Reducing Errorp. 605
Other Influences on Judgmentsp. 609
The Defendant's Characteristicsp. 610
The Judge's Instructionsp. 613
Other Issuesp. 615
The Jurors as Individualsp. 617
Juror Comprehensionp. 617
Jury Selectionp. 620
"Death-Qualified" Jurorsp. 621
The Jury as a Groupp. 622
Minority Influencep. 623
Group Polarizationp. 623
Leniencyp. 624
Are 12 Heads Better than 1?p. 625
Are 6 Heads as Good as 12?p. 625
From Lab to Life: Simulated and Real Juriesp. 626
Personal Postscript: Thinking Smart with Psychological Sciencep. 628
Social Psychology and the Sustainable Futurep. 631
The Global Crisisp. 632
Overshooting the Earth's Carrying Capacityp. 633
Enabling Sustainable Lifestylesp. 636
The Social Psychology of Materialism and Simplicityp. 639
Increased Materialismp. 639
Wealth and Well-Beingp. 640
Why Materialism Fails to Satisfyp. 643
Toward Sustainable Consumptionp. 646
Personal Postscript: A Final Wordp. 648
Glossaryp. 1
Referencesp. 1
Acknowledgmentsp. 1
Indexesp. 1
Namep. 1
Subjectp. 1
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.
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