Preface | |

The Nature of Probability and Statistics | p. 1 |

Statistics Today: Are We Improving Our Diet? | p. 2 |

Introduction | p. 2 |

Speaking of Statistics: The Perfect Burger | p. 4 |

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics | p. 4 |

Speaking of Statistics: Super Snack Stats | p. 5 |

Speaking of Statistics: Risks in the Home | p. 6 |

Variables and Types of Data | p. 7 |

Speaking of Statistics: Height Fright Not Right | p. 8 |

Data Collection and Sampling Techniques | p. 10 |

Random Sampling | p. 11 |

Systematic Sampling | p. 11 |

Speaking of Statistics: Surviving Bad Days at Work | p. 12 |

Stratified Sampling | p. 12 |

Cluster Sampling | p. 12 |

Speaking of Statistics: How Often Does Your Family Eat Dinner at Home Together? | p. 13 |

Speaking of Statistics: Shake and Wake | p. 14 |

Other Sampling Methods | p. 14 |

Observational and Experimental Studies | p. 15 |

Computers and Calculators | p. 17 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 17 |

Summary | p. 22 |

Frequency Distributions and Graphs | p. 30 |

Statistics Today: Are We Flying More? | p. 31 |

Introduction | p. 32 |

Organizing Data | p. 32 |

Categorical Frequency Distributions | p. 33 |

Grouped Frequency Distributions | p. 34 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 43 |

Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives | p. 44 |

The Histogram | p. 45 |

The Frequency Polygon | p. 47 |

The Ogive | p. 48 |

Relative Frequency Graphs | p. 50 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 55 |

Other Types of Graphs | p. 58 |

Pareto Charts | p. 58 |

The Time Series Graph | p. 60 |

Speaking of Statistics: Pennsylvania Coal Production | p. 61 |

The Pie Graph | p. 62 |

Misleading Graphs | p. 65 |

Speaking of Statistics: Costliest Big Cities for Driving | p. 69 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 71 |

Speaking of Statistics: Budget Deficit Drops | p. 72 |

Summary | p. 73 |

Data Description | p. 80 |

Statistics Today: Who Is a Typical First-Time Home Buyer? | p. 81 |

Introduction | p. 81 |

Measures of Central Tendency | p. 82 |

The Mean | p. 83 |

Speaking of Statistics: Big Spenders | p. 85 |

The Median | p. 86 |

The Mode | p. 89 |

Speaking of Statistics: Leave the Driving to... | p. 91 |

The Midrange | p. 91 |

The Weighted Mean | p. 92 |

Distribution Shapes | p. 94 |

Measures of Variation | p. 99 |

Range | p. 100 |

Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 101 |

The Unbiased Estimator | p. 104 |

Variance and Standard Deviation for Grouped Data | p. 105 |

Coefficient of Variation | p. 108 |

Chebyshev's Theorem | p. 109 |

The Empirical (Normal) Rule | p. 111 |

Measures of Postion | p. 115 |

Standard Scores | p. 115 |

Percentiles | p. 116 |

Quartiles and Deciles | p. 123 |

Outliers | p. 124 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 127 |

Exploratory Data Analysis | p. 130 |

Stem and Leaf Plots | p. 130 |

Boxplots | p. 133 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 137 |

Summary | p. 140 |

Counting Techniques | p. 149 |

Statistics Today: Why Are We Running Out of 800 Numbers? | p. 150 |

Introduction | p. 151 |

Tree Diagrams and the Multiplication Rule for Counting | p. 151 |

The Multiplication Rule for Counting | p. 153 |

Permutations and Combinations | p. 156 |

Factorial Level Notation | p. 156 |

Permutations | p. 156 |

Combinations | p. 158 |

Summary | p. 162 |

Probability | p. 166 |

Statistics Today: Would You Bet Your Life? | p. 167 |

Introduction | p. 168 |

Sample Spaces and Probability | p. 168 |

Basic Concepts | p. 168 |

Classical Probability | p. 171 |

Complementary Events | p. 174 |

Empirical Probability | p. 175 |

Law of Large Numbers | p. 177 |

Subjective Probability | p. 178 |

Probability and Risk Taking | p. 178 |

The Addition Rules for Probability | p. 181 |

Speaking of Statistics: CEO Profile | p. 182 |

The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probability | p. 188 |

The Multiplication Rules | p. 188 |

Conditional Probability | p. 193 |

Probabilities for "At Least" | p. 195 |

Probability and Counting Techniques (Optional) | p. 199 |

Summary | p. 202 |

Discrete Probability Distributions | p. 209 |

Statistics Today: Are the Rockets Hitting the Targets? | p. 210 |

Introduction | p. 210 |

Probability Distributions | p. 211 |

Mean, Variance, and Expectation | p. 215 |

Mean | p. 215 |

Variance | p. 218 |

Expectation | p. 220 |

The Binomial Distribution | p. 224 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 232 |

Other Types of Distributions (Optional) | p. 234 |

The Multinomial Distribution | p. 234 |

The Poisson Distribution | p. 235 |

The Hypergeometric Distribution | p. 237 |

Summary | p. 241 |

The Normal Distribution | p. 247 |

Statistics Today: What Is Normal? | p. 248 |

Introduction | p. 248 |

Properties of the Normal Distribution | p. 250 |

The Standard Normal Distribution | p. 251 |

Finding Areas under the Standard Normal Distribution Curve | p. 253 |

The Normal Distribution Curve as a Probability Distribution Curve | p. 260 |

Applications of the Normal Distribution | p. 264 |

Finding Data Values Given Specific Probabilities | p. 268 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 273 |

The Central Limit Theorem | p. 274 |

Distribution of Sample Means | p. 275 |

Finite Population Correction Factor (Optional) | p. 281 |

The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution | p. 284 |

Summary | p. 290 |

Confidence Intervals and Sample Size | p. 296 |

Statistics Today: Would You Change the Channel? | p. 297 |

Introduction | p. 298 |

Confidence Intervals for the Mean ([sigma] Known or n [greater than or equal] 30) and Sample Size | p. 299 |

Confidence Intervals | p. 299 |

Sample Size | p. 305 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 309 |

Confidence Intervals for the Mean ([sigma] Unknown and n [ 30) | p. 311 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 316 |

Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions | p. 318 |

Confidence Intervals | p. 319 |

Sample Size for Proportions | p. 320 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 323 |

Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations | p. 325 |

Summary | p. 329 |

Hypothesis Testing | p. 335 |

Statistics Today: How Much Better Is Better? | p. 336 |

Introduction | p. 337 |

Steps in Hypothesis Testing--Traditional Method | p. 337 |

z Test for a Mean | p. 349 |

Speaking of Statistics: Stick Margarine May Boost Risk of Heart Attacks | p. 350 |

P-Value Method for Hypothesis Testing | p. 354 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 361 |

t Test for a Mean | p. 363 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 371 |

z Test for a Proportion | p. 372 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 377 |

x[superscript 2] Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation | p. 378 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 386 |

Additional Topics Regarding Hypothesis Testing | p. 387 |

Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing | p. 387 |

Type II Error and the Power of a Test | p. 388 |

Summary | p. 391 |

Testing the Difference between Two Means, Two Variances, and Two Proportions | p. 398 |

Statistics Today: To Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate? Small or Large? | p. 399 |

Introduction | p. 399 |

Testing the Difference between Two Means: Large Samples | p. 400 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 408 |

Testing the Difference between Two Variances | p. 412 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 420 |

Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Independent Samples | p. 424 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 429 |

Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Dependent Samples | p. 433 |

Speaking of Statistics: Public School Teachers Show Bias for Boys | p. 434 |

Speaking of Statistics: Pedaling a Solution for Couch-Potato Kids | p. 442 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 443 |

Testing the Difference between Proportions | p. 446 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 451 |

Summary | p. 453 |

Hypothesis-Testing Summary 1 | p. 460 |

Correlation and Regression | p. 462 |

Statistics Today: Do Dust Storms Affect Respiratory Health? | p. 463 |

Introduction | p. 463 |

Scatter Plots | p. 464 |

Correlation | p. 468 |

Correlation Coefficient | p. 468 |

The Significance of the Correlation Coefficient | p. 471 |

Correlation and Causation | p. 474 |

Speaking of Statistics: Coffee Not Disease Culprit, Study Says | p. 476 |

Regression | p. 478 |

Line of Best Fit | p. 478 |

Determination of the Regression Line Equation | p. 479 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 485 |

Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of Estimate | p. 490 |

Types of Variation for the Regression Model | p. 490 |

Coefficient of Determination | p. 492 |

Standard Error of Estimate | p. 492 |

Prediction Interval | p. 495 |

Multiple Regression (Optional) | p. 497 |

Speaking of Statistics: Computer Use Declines as Girls Age | p. 498 |

The Multiple Regression Equation | p. 499 |

Testing the Significance of R | p. 500 |

Adjusted R[superscript 2] | p. 501 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 503 |

Summary | p. 504 |

Other Chi-Square Tests | p. 510 |

Statistics Today: Statistics and Heredity | p. 511 |

Introduction | p. 511 |

Test for Goodness of Fit | p. 512 |

Test of Normality (Optional) | p. 517 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 521 |

Tests Using Contingency Tables | p. 523 |

Test for Independence | p. 523 |

Test for Homogeneity of Proportions | p. 528 |

Speaking of Statistics: Ignoring Commercials | p. 531 |

Speaking of Statistics: At Least They're Checking for Radon | p. 532 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 535 |

Summary | p. 537 |

Analysis of Variance | p. 543 |

Statistics Today: Is Seeing Really Believing? | p. 544 |

Introduction | p. 544 |

One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 545 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 551 |

The Scheffe Test and the Tukey Test | p. 554 |

Scheffe Test | p. 554 |

Speaking of Statistics: Coffee Doesn't Increase Risk of Heart Disease | p. 555 |

Tukey Test | p. 556 |

Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 560 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 571 |

Summary | p. 574 |

Hypothesis-Testing Summary 2 | p. 580 |

Nonparametric Statistics | p. 582 |

Statistics Today: Too Much or Too Little? | p. 583 |

Introduction | p. 583 |

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Methods | p. 584 |

Advantages | p. 584 |

Disadvantages | p. 584 |

Ranking | p. 585 |

Speaking of Statistics: New Hampshire, Exemplary State of Health | p. 586 |

The Sign Test | p. 586 |

Single-Sample Sign Test | p. 586 |

Paired-Sample Sign Test | p. 589 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 593 |

The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test | p. 594 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 598 |

The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test | p. 599 |

Speaking of Statistics: Changes in Police Force Size | p. 603 |

Speaking of Statistics: Lacrosse by the Numbers | p. 604 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 604 |

The Kruskal-Wallis Test | p. 605 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 610 |

The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient and the Runs Test | p. 610 |

Rank Correlation Coefficient | p. 611 |

Speaking of Statistics: Stock Permits | p. 613 |

The Runs Test | p. 614 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 620 |

Summary | p. 620 |

Speaking of Statistics: Pessimism Linked to Early Death | p. 621 |

Hypothesis-Testing Summary 3 | p. 627 |

Sampling and Simulation | p. 629 |

Statistics Today: No Room in the Van? | p. 630 |

Introduction | p. 630 |

Common Sampling Techniques | p. 631 |

Random Sampling | p. 631 |

Speaking of Statistics: Odds Stacked against Lefties | p. 633 |

Systematic Sampling | p. 636 |

Stratified Sampling | p. 637 |

Cluster Sampling | p. 639 |

Other Types of Sampling Techniques | p. 640 |

Speaking of Statistics: Help, I've Failed and I Can't Get Up | p. 641 |

Technology Step by Step | p. 643 |

Surveys and Questionnaire Design | p. 645 |

Simulation Techniques | p. 647 |

The Monte Carlo Method | p. 648 |

Summary | p. 653 |

Algebra Review | p. 658 |

Writing the Research Report | p. 663 |

Bayes's Theorem | p. 664 |

Tables | p. 668 |

Data Bank | p. 697 |

Glossary | p. 705 |

Bibliography | p. 711 |

Photo Credits | p. 713 |

Selected Answers | p. 714 |

Index | |

Instructor's Section: Instructor's Edition Only | p. 761 |

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