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Becoming a Middle Level Teacher : The Student Focused Teaching of Early Adolescents

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ISBN-10: 0072361727

ISBN-13: 9780072361728

Edition: 2007

Authors: Cathy Vatterott

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Becoming A Middle Level Teacher outlines an approach to student focused instruction that can provide greater academic success for the most students, and at the same time, assist early adolescents in navigating the difficult transition of puberty. The text revolves around four recurring themes:-A critical link exists between developmental needs and learning.-Relationships are key to motivation, which is key to learning.-Middle school students are entitled to be involved in decisions that affect their learning.-Implementing student focused instruction is both challenging and rewarding for teachers.With over 50 successful learning activities in language arts, social studies, science, math,…    
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Book details

Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Binding: Perfect 
Pages: 435
Size: 7.25" wide x 8.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.738
Language: English

Prefacep. iii
The School and the Learnerp. 1
Understanding the Need for Student-Focused Instructionp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Essential Questionsp. 4
The Middle School Learnerp. 4
Middle Schools and Junior High Schoolsp. 5
Turning pointsp. 7
Middle School Philosophyp. 8
The Philosophy of Student-Focused Instructionp. 11
Beliefs about Learnersp. 11
Beliefs about Powerp. 12
Promoting Academic Success: Have Schools Institutionalized Failure?p. 15
Student Focused Instruction-More Success for More Studentsp. 19
Traditional Instruction versus Student-Focused Instructionp. 20
Implementing Student-Focused Instructionp. 23
Summaryp. 24
Key Termsp. 24
Application Activitiesp. 24
Understanding Middle Level Learners-Physical and Intellectual Developmentp. 27
Introductionp. 27
Essential Questionsp. 28
Patterns of Physical Development during Pubertyp. 28
What Are the Characteristics of Physical Development during Puberty?p. 31
What Are the Implications of Physical Development for Instruction?p. 37
Patterns of Intellectual Development during Pubertyp. 39
What Are the Characteristics of Intellectual Development in Early Adolescentsp. 40
What Are the Implications of Intellectual Development for Instruction?p. 44
Patterns of Diversity in Learning Preferencep. 46
Differences in Learning Stylep. 46
Students with Special Needsp. 47
The Question of Attention Deficit Disorder among Middle School Studentsp. 49
What Are the Implications of Individual Learning Styles for Instruction?p. 51
Summaryp. 51
Key Termsp. 52
Application Activitiesp. 52
Understanding Middle Level Learners-Emotional and Social Developmentp. 55
Introductionp. 55
Essential Questionsp. 56
Patterns of Emotional and Social Development during Pubertyp. 56
Two Important Developmental Tasksp. 56
Emotional Characteristics of Early Adolescentsp. 58
Social Characteristics of Early Adolescentsp. 59
The Development of Sexualityp. 63
What Are the Implications of Emotional and Social Development for Instruction?p. 65
Impact of Culture on the Process of Early Adolescent Developmentp. 67
Social Forces That Make Adolescence More Challenging Today Than in Previous Generationsp. 68
Special Risks for Today's Early Adolescentsp. 73
Summaryp. 74
Key Termsp. 74
Application Activitiesp. 74
An Environment that Supports Academic Achievementp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Essential Questionsp. 78
A Needs Based Environmentp. 78
Addressing Survival Needs-Creating a Safe Place to Learnp. 78
Addressing Physical Needs-Respecting Brain Chemistryp. 80
Addressing Needs for Power and Competence-Putting Students in Chargep. 82
Love and Belonging-Developing Positive Relationshipsp. 83
Membership-Bringing Diverse Groups Togetherp. 89
Awareness and Sensitivity Firstp. 90
Classroom as Communityp. 94
The Role of Community in Discipline and Moral Developmentp. 100
Needs-Based Discipline in a Caring Classroom Communityp. 103
Summaryp. 108
Key Termsp. 108
Application Activitiesp. 109
The Strategiesp. 111
The Middle School Curriculump. 113
Introductionp. 113
Essential Questionsp. 114
Forces Impacting Middle School Curriculump. 114
Curriculum Alignment with Standardsp. 115
Overemphasis on Standardized Test Scoresp. 115
Caringp. 116
The Anti-Middle School Movementp. 116
The Academic Rigor Debatep. 117
Aims and Goals of a Student-Focused Curriculum at the Middle Levelp. 119
To Develop and Refine Intellectual Skillsp. 119
To Assist Students in Developing Identityp. 121
To Assist Students in Defining Their Role in the Adult Worldp. 123
The Nature of Middle Level Contentp. 126
The Five Curricula of the Middle Schoolp. 127
The Academic Curriculump. 127
The Expressive Curriculump. 130
The Wellness Curriculump. 133
The Co-Curriculump. 138
The Affective Curriculump. 142
Organizational Structures That Facilitate Curriculum Goalsp. 148
Interdisciplinary Teamsp. 148
Scheduling Optionsp. 153
Summaryp. 157
Key Termsp. 158
Application Activitiesp. 158
Making Decisions about Curriculump. 161
Introductionp. 161
Essential Questionsp. 162
Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessmentp. 162
Then and Now: The Evolution of Traditional Planningp. 163
Limitations of Traditional Planningp. 164
Results-Driven Planningp. 164
The Role of Standards and Standardized Tests in Curriculum Planningp. 166
Examples of General State Standardsp. 167
Examples of Content Standardsp. 167
Aligning Curriculum with Standardsp. 170
Tests That Attempt to Measure Standardsp. 171
Steps in Curriculum Planningp. 175
Determining Long-Range Goalsp. 176
Organizing Curriculum Content around Big Ideasp. 182
Organizing Big Ideas into Enduring Understandingsp. 186
Determining Essential Questionsp. 189
Designing Student Activitiesp. 192
Summaryp. 194
Key Termsp. 195
Application Activitiesp. 195
Planning for Student-Focused Instructionp. 199
Introductionp. 200
Essential Questionsp. 200
Planning Units around Essential Questionsp. 201
Writing Objectives for Units and Lessonsp. 203
Levels of Cognitive Objectivesp. 204
Types of Content That Objectives Addressp. 205
How Will We Know If Students Are Reaching Our Objectives?p. 207
How Do Teachers Design Learning Activities That Also Assess Learning?p. 207
What Learning Principles Are Important When Planning Student-Focused Learning Activities?p. 212
Learning is Constructivistp. 212
Students Need a Personal Relationship with the Contentp. 215
Learners Are Uniquep. 219
How Do Teachers Design Student-Focused Learning Activities?p. 222
They Redirect the Time and Energy of Planning and Assessmentp. 222
They Think Creativity about Their Contentp. 223
They Involve Students in Planningp. 226
Steps in Creating Student-Focused Learning Activitiesp. 227
Structuring the Activityp. 227
Determining a Method for Evaluationp. 228
Assembling Resources or Reference Materials Necessary for the Student to Complete the Activityp. 228
Setting Up Learning Stationsp. 228
Teaching the Skills Necessary to Complete the Taskp. 228
Monitoring the Students as They Work on the Taskp. 228
What Do Good Learning Activities Look Like?p. 229
Ideal Characteristics of Learning Activitiesp. 230
Project Templatesp. 233
Using Learning Activities to Differentiate Instructionp. 236
Why Do Teachers Differentiate?p. 236
How Do Teachers Differentiate Instruction?p. 238
When Should Teachers Differentiate?p. 238
Interdisciplinary Learning Activitiesp. 239
Choosing Themes for Interdisciplinary Unitsp. 239
Methods for Developing Interdisciplinary Themesp. 240
Components of an Interdisciplinary Unitp. 242
Sample Interdisciplinary Unitsp. 242
Summaryp. 246
Key Termsp. 247
Application Activitiesp. 247
Selecting Teacher-Focused Strategiesp. 251
Introductionp. 251
Essential Questionsp. 252
Organizing Principles for Selecting Instructional Strategiesp. 252
The Choice of Instructional Strategy Should Be Based on Learner Outcomep. 253
Learner Outcomes Must Be Prioritized and Those Priorities Affect the Teacher's Choice of Instructional Strategyp. 253
Selection of Strategies Must Be Balanced to Create a Variety of Learning Experiencesp. 253
Learning Experiences Should Be Engagingp. 254
Direct Instructionp. 254
Special Considerations When Using This Method The 12-Minute Rulep. 255
Structure of a Teacher-Focused Direct Instruction Lessonp. 257
Structure of a Student-Focused Direct Instruction Lessonp. 257
The Issue of Student Voicep. 260
Class Discussion Techniquesp. 267
Special Considerationsp. 268
Structure of a Discussion Lessonp. 269
What Is the Role of the Teacher in a Discussion?p. 269
Student and Teacher Questioning to Advance Lessonsp. 270
Types of Questionsp. 270
Creating a Positive Climate for Questioningp. 271
The Importance of Wait Timep. 272
Strategies for Improving Questioningp. 273
Other Uses of Questionsp. 275
Bookwork/Paperworkp. 275
Hints for Creating Visually Appealing Worksheets or Written Exercisesp. 277
Using Textbooks Wiselyp. 277
Using Writing as a Learning Strategyp. 285
Journalsp. 286
Learning Logsp. 287
Summaryp. 288
Key Termsp. 288
Application Activitiesp. 288
Selecting Student-Focused Instructional Strategiesp. 291
Introductionp. 291
Essential Questionsp. 292
Review of Organizing Principles for Selecting Instructional Strategiesp. 292
Using Technology as a Student-Focused Strategyp. 293
The Power of Technologyp. 293
Technology Toolsp. 294
Special Considerations for Using Technologyp. 298
Conceptual Techniquesp. 298
Concept Mappingp. 298
Card Sort Activitiesp. 299
Comparing and Contrasting Activitiesp. 300
Cause and Effect Chartsp. 300
Interpretive Activitiesp. 300
Structure of the Conceptual Lessonp. 300
Special Considerations for the Conceptual Lessonp. 302
Independent Workp. 302
Special Considerations for Independent Workp. 303
Learning Stationsp. 303
Special Considerations for Learning Stationsp. 305
Cooperative and Small Group Learningp. 305
Organizing Students for Small Group Workp. 310
Social Skills for Group Workp. 310
Roles of Group Membersp. 311
Hints for Effective Group Workp. 314
Evaluating Group Workp. 314
Special Considerations for Cooperative Learningp. 314
Inquiry Learningp. 315
Structure of an Inquiry Lessonp. 317
Special Considerations for Inquiry Learningp. 318
Problem-Based Learningp. 318
Special Considerations for Problem-Based Learningp. 319
Gamesp. 322
Special Considerations for Gamesp. 322
Role-Playsp. 322
Special Considerations for Role-Playp. 325
Summaryp. 325
Key Termsp. 326
Application Activitiesp. 326
Student-Friendly Grading and Assessmentp. 329
Introductionp. 330
Essential Questionsp. 330
How Teaching Practices Have Influenced Assessment Practicesp. 331
Sorting and Ranking versus Teaching and Learning Practicesp. 331
Assumptions Inherent in Traditional Approaches to Assessmentp. 333
All Students Learn in the Same Way and at the Same Speedp. 333
Grades Are Essential to Learningp. 333
Grades Motivate Learnersp. 334
Grades Are Necessary for Controlp. 335
Good Teachers Give Bad Gradesp. 336
Moving Toward a Teaching and Learning Focusp. 337
Reexamining Traditional Practicesp. 339
Letter Gradesp. 339
Competitive Grading and Grading on the Curvep. 339
Moment in Time Gradingp. 339
Averagingp. 340
Rethinking the Practice of Homeworkp. 341
Historical Attitudes about Homeworkp. 342
The Big Picture of Homework Researchp. 343
Does Homework Teach Responsibility?p. 344
The Conflict of Homework and Developmental Needs of Early Adolescentsp. 345
Does Homework Unfairly Punish Some Students?p. 346
Grading of Homeworkp. 346
What to Grade, How to Gradep. 347
Weighting of Gradesp. 349
Organizing for Student Successp. 349
A Fairer Testp. 351
Formative Feedbackp. 353
The Mastery Optionp. 354
Designing Performance-Based Assessmentsp. 355
Designing Rubrics for Performance Assessmentsp. 355
Making Students Accountable for Gradesp. 363
Portfoliosp. 366
Weekly Averaging/Frequent Grade Checksp. 368
Communicating with Parents about Gradesp. 370
Summaryp. 370
Key Termsp. 371
Application Activitiesp. 372
Becoming a Student-Focused Teacherp. 375
Introductionp. 375
Essential Questionsp. 376
The Role of Beliefs and Attitudes in Successful Student-Focused Teachingp. 376
Why Reflect on Our Beliefs?p. 377
Reflecting on Our School Experiencesp. 378
Clarifying Our Beliefs about Teaching and Learningp. 381
Reflecting on Our Beliefs about Learners and Learningp. 381
Reflecting on Our Beliefs about Teachingp. 382
How Our Beliefs Influence Our Studentsp. 385
Breaking the Vicious Circles of Negative Beliefsp. 390
Challenging Our Fears about Student-Focused Instructionp. 391
Fear of Change, of Trying Something Newp. 393
Upsetting the Status Quop. 393
Peer Pressure from Controlling Teachersp. 393
Accountability for Standardized Test Scoresp. 394
The Time Crunch: I Don't Have Time to Teach This Wayp. 395
Out-of-Control Studentsp. 395
Implementing Student-Focused Instructionp. 396
Letting Go of Traditional Rolesp. 396
What It Takes-Practical Hintsp. 398
What It Takes Emotionallyp. 398
Summaryp. 399
Key Termsp. 399
Application Activitiesp. 400
Glossaryp. 401
Referencesp. 404
Photo Creditsp. 418
Indexp. 419
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