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Handbook of Analytical Instruments

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ISBN-10: 0071487468

ISBN-13: 9780071487467

Edition: 2007

Authors: R. S. Khandpur

List price: $119.00
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Select the Right Analytical Instruments to Optimize Scientific and Engineering Projects and Research "The Handbook of Analytical Instruments" offers scientists and engineers a complete guide to the principles and building blocks of today's high-tech instruments, so that they can select the right analytical tools to optimize their projects and research. This expert resource covers instrumentation basics and recent advances, such as biosensors...gamma spectrometers... and visualization methods for electrophoresis. The book takes readers through flame photometers, radiochemical instruments, automated chemical analysis systems, blood gas analyzers, digital circuits, and much more. Filled with…    
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Book details

List price: $119.00
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
Publication date: 12/22/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 770
Size: 7.60" wide x 9.40" long x 1.85" tall
Weight: 3.476
Language: English

Fundamentals of Analytical Instruments
Elements of an Analytical Instrument
Sensors and Transducers
Classification of Transducers
Performance Characteristics of Transducers
Smart Sensors
Signal Conditioning in Analytical Instruments
Read-out (Display) Systems
Analog Meters
Digital Displays
Laboratory Recorders
The Oscilloscope
Video Display Units
Intelligent Analytical Instrumentation Systems
PC-Based Analytical Instruments
Performance Requirements of Analytical Instruments
Errors in Chemical Analysis
Accuracy and Precision
Significant Figures
Application of Statistical Methods
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Other Performance Parameters
Instrument Calibration Techniques
Calibration Curve Method
Standard Addition Method
Method of Internal Standard
Colorimeters and Spectrophotometers (Visible-Ultraviolet)
Electromagnetic Radiation
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
Laws Relating to Absorption of Radiation
Lambert's Law
Beer's Law
The Beer-Lambert Law
Deviations from Beer's Law
Quantitative Analysis
Choice of Wavelength
Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination
Absorption Instruments
Radiation Sources
Optical Filters
Optical Components
Photosensitive Detectors
Slit Width
Sample Holders
Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy (UV-Vis)
Single-beam Filter Photometers
Double-beam Filter Photometer
Multi-channel Photometer
Process Photometers
Single-beam Null-type Spectrophotometers
Direct Reading Spectrocolorimeters/Spectrophotometers
Double-beam Ratio-recording Spectrophotometers
Microprocessor-based Spectrophotometers
High Performance Spectrophotometers
Dual Wavelength Spectrophotometer
The Derivative Technique
Sources of Error In Spectrophotometric Measurements
Instrument-related Errors
Non-instrumental Errors
Infrared Spectrophotometers
Infrared Spectroscopy
Basic Components of Infrared Spectrophotometers
Radiation Sources
Entrance and Exit Slits
Types of Infrared Spectrophotometers
Optical Null Method
Ratio Recording Method
Sample Handling Techniques
Gas Cells
Eiquid Cells
Variable Path Length Cells
Sampling of Solids
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
FTIR Spectrophotometers
Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) Technique
Flame Photometers
Principle of Flame Photometry
Constructional Details of Flame Photometers
Emission System
Optical System
Photosensitive Detectors
Recording System
Types of Flame Photometers
Single-beam Instruments
Double-beam Instruments
Recording Type Flame Photometers
Clinical Flame Photometers
Accessories for Flame Photometer
Expression of Concentration
Interferences in Flame Photometry
Flame Background Emission
Direct Spectral Interference
Effect of Anions
Effect of Ionization
Solution Characteristics
Procedure For Determinations
Calibration Curve Method
Standard Addition Method
Internal Standard Method
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometers
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Atomic Absorption Instrumentation
Radiation Sources
Burners and Flames
Plasma Excitation Sources
Graphite Furnace for Atomization
Optical System
Electronic System
Signal Integration
Sampling System
Performance Aspects
Sources of Interferences
Anionic Interference
Viscosity Interference
Ionization Interference
Broadening of the Spectral Line
Meter Scale
Curve Correction for Linearization
Fluorimeters and Phosphorimeters
Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Principle of Fluorescence
Relationship between Concentration and Fluorescence Intensity
Factors Affecting Fluorescent Yield
Measurement of Fluorescence
Single-beam Filter Fluorimeter
Double-beam Filter Fluorimeter
Ratio Fluorimeters
Microprocessor-Based Spectrofluorometer
Perkin Elmer Fluorescence Spectrometer Model LS-3
Measurement of Phosphorescence
Phosphorescence Spectrometer
Raman Spectrometer
The Raman Effect
Resonance-enhanced Raman Scattering
Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering
Raman Spectrometer
The Source
Sample Chamber
The Spectrometer
The Detector
PC-based Raman Spectrometer
Infrared and Raman Microspectrometry
Photoacoustic and Photothermal Spectrometers
Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
System Components
Typical Photoacoustic Spectrometers
Photothermal Spectroscopy
Basic Processes in Photothermal Spectroscopy
Photothermal Instrumentation
Mass Spectrometer
Basic Mass Spectrometer
Principle of Operation
Types of Mass Spectrometers
Magnetic Deflection Mass Spectrometer
The Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer
Radiofrequency Mass Spectrometer
Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer
Components of a Mass Spectrometer
The Inlet Sample System
Ion Sources
Electrostatic Accelerating System
Ion Detectors and Recording of Mass Spectrograph
Vacuum System
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer
Trapped Ion Mass Analyzers
Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ICR) Mass Spectrometery
Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer
Resolution in Mass Spectrometry
Applications of Mass Spectrometry
Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS)
Liquid Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer
Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Principle of NMR
Nuclear Spin
Nuclear Energy Levels
Resonance Conditions
NMR Absorption Spectra
Relaxation Process
The Chemical Shift
Types of NMR Spectrometers
Continuous-wave NMR Spectroscopy
Fourier Transform NMR Spectroscopy
Constructional Details of NMR Spectrometer
Magnetic Field
The Radiofrequency Transmitter
The Signal Amplifier and Detector
The Display System
Recording Unit
Use of Computers with NMR Spectrometers
The Sample Holder
Varian T-60A NMR Spectrometer
Sensitivity Enhancement for Analytical NMR Spectroscopy
Optimization of Sample Volume
Optimization of Instrumental Parameters
Use of Signal Averaging Technique
Spin Decoupler
Fourier Transform NMR Spectroscopy
Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometers
Electron Spin Resonance
Basic ESR Spectrometer
Detailed Description of an ESR Spectrometer
The Magnet and the Magnetic Field Controller
Microwave Bridge
Modulation Unit
System Function Selector
Sample Cavities
Sample Cells
Electron and Ion Spectrometers
Surface Spectroscopic Techniques
Electron Spectroscopy
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)
Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
Instrumentation for Electron Spectroscopy
Radiation Sources
Energy Analyzers
Electron Detectors
Read-out System
Vacuum Systems
Magnetic Shielding
Sample Handling
Ion Spectroscopy
Instrumentation for Ion Spectroscopy
Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy
Atomic Force Microscopy
Radiochemical Instruments
Fundamentals of Radiochemical Methods
Time Decay of Radioactive Isotopes
Units of Radioactivity
Types and Properties of Particles Emitted in Radioactive Decay
Interaction of Radiations with Matter
Radiation Detectors
Ionization Chamber
Geiger-Muller Counter
Proportional Counter
Scintillation Counter
Gamma Counters
Semiconductor Detectors
Liquid Scintillation Counters
Pulse-Height Analyzer
Gamma Spectrometry
X-Ray Spectrometers
X-Ray Spectrum
Instrumentation for X-Ray Spectrometry
X-Ray Generating Equipment
X-Ray Detectors
X-Ray Diffractometers
X-Ray Absorption Meter
X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
X-$ay Fluorescent Spectrometer
Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer
Electron Probe Microanalyzer
Automated Chemical Analysis Systems
Why Automate?
Benefits of Automation in Chemical Analysis
Types of Automatic Analysis Techniques
Basic Automatic Analysis System
Automated Biochemical Analysis System
The System Details
Advanced Versions of Multiple Analysis System
Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) Technique
Lab-on-Chip Technology for Automated Analysis
Gas Chromatographs
Basic Definitions
Gas Chromatography
Basic Parts of a Gas Chromatograph
Carrier Gas Supply or the Mobile Phase
Sample Injection System and the Size of the Sample
Chromatographic Column
Thermal Compartment
Detection Systems
Recording Instruments
Methods of Measurement of Peak Areas
Liquid Chromatographs
Liquid Chromatography
Types of Liquid Chromatography
Column Chromatography
Thin Layer Chromatography
Paper Partition Chromatography
High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC)
High Pressure Pump System
Sample Injection System
The Column
Detection Systems
Programmers and Read-Outs
Amino-Acid Analyzers
Automatic Amino-acid Analyzer
Thermo-analytical Instruments
Thermo-analytical Methods
Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)
Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Simultaneous Thermal Analysis/Mass Spectrometer
Electrophoresis Apparatus and Densitometers
Electrophoresis Techniques
Paper Electrophoresis
Methods of Zone Localization
Quantitative Considerations
Evaluation of the Curves
Electrophoresis Apparatus
Electrophoresis Cabinet
Regulated Power Supply
Microprocessor-based Densitometer
Capillary Electrophoresis
Steps in the Electrophoresis Procedure Requiring Quality Control
Electrochemical Instruments
Electrochemical Methods for Analysis
Electrochemical Cell
Types of Electrodes
Types of Electrochemical Methods
Principle of a Potentiometer
Zero Current Potentiometry
Constant Current Potentiometry
Null-point Potentiometry
Cyclic Chronopotentiometry
Conductivity Meters
Measurement of Conductance
Conductivity Cells
Temperature Compensation in Conductivity Measurements
Conductivity Measurements Using High Frequency Methods
Basic Polarographic Instrument
Dropping Mercury Electrode
Reference Electrode
Typical Polarographs
Quantitative Aspects of Polarography
Types of Polarographs
Microcomputer-controlled Electrochemical Instrumentation
pH Meters and Ion Analyzers
What is pH ?
Principle of pH Measurement
Electrodes for pH Measurement
The Hydrogen Electrode
Glass Electrode
Calomel Electrode or Reference Electrode
Silver/Silver Chloride Reference Electrode
Combination Electrode
The Asymmetry Potential
Buffer Solutions
A pH Meters
Null-Detector Type pH Meters
Direct Reading pH Meters
Industrial pH Meters
Failures in pH Meters
Selective Ion Electrodes
Ammonia Electrode
Fluoride Electrode
Ion Analyzer
PC-based pH Meter Ion-analyzers
Chemically Sensitive Semiconductor Devices
Blood Gas Analyzers
Acid Base Balance
Blood pH Measurement
Electrodes for Blood pH Measurement
Effect of Blood on Electrodes
Buffer Solutions
Measurement of Blood pCO[subscript 2]
Performance Requirements of pH Meters Used for pCO[subscript 2] Measurement
Blood pO[subscript 2] Measurement
A Complete Blood Gas Analyzer
Fibre Optic-based Blood Gas Sensors
Industrial Gas Analyzers
Types of Gas Analyzers
Paramagnetic Oxygen Analyzer
Magnetic Wind Instruments
A The Electrochemical Methods
Galvanic Methods
Polarographic Cells
Conductometric Method
Infrared Gas Analyzers
Thermal Conductivity Analyzers
Analyzers Based on Gas Density
Method Based on Ionization of Gases
Environmental Pollution Monitoring Instruments
Air Pollution Monitoring Instruments
Representation of Gas Concentrations
Types and Concentration of Various Gas Pollutants
Instrumental Techniques and Measurement Range
Carbon Monoxide
Non-dispersive Infrared Analyzer
Gas Chromatography
Sulphur Dioxide
Gas Chromatography
Flame-photometric Detector
Ultraviolet Fluorescence Method
Nitrogen Oxides
Use of CO Laser
Laser Opto-acoustic Spectroscopy
Flame Ionization Detector
Gas Chromatography
Use of Lasers
Automated Wet-Chemical Air Analysis
Total Oxidants
Sulphur Dioxide
Water Pollution Monitoring Instruments
Types of Pollutants and Techniques
Electronic Devices and Circuits
Electronic Components
Active vs Passive Components
Discrete vs Integrated Circuits
Passive Components
Semiconductor Devices
P-N Junction
Semiconductor Diode
Bipolar Transistors
Field-Effect Transistor
Integrated Circuits
Operational Amplifiers
Symbolic Representation
Power Supply Requirements for Op-Amps
Output Voltage Swing
Output Current
Characteristics of Op-Amps
Performance Characteristics of Op-Amps
Typical Op-Amp Circuits
Sources of Noise In Electronic Circuits
Thermal Noise or Johnson Noise
Shot Noise
Flicker Noise
Environmental Noise
Sources of Noise in Low-Level Measurements
Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Coupling to AC Signals
Proper Grounding (Common Impedance Coupling)
Noise Reduction Techniques
Hardware Techniques
Software Techniques
Digital Circuits
Digital Circuits
Binary Number System
Truth Tables
Logic Circuits
Logic Convention
Types of Logic Circuits
The And Gate
The Or Gate
The Invertor (Not) Gate
The Nand (Not-And) Gate
The Nor Gate
The Exclusive-Or (Ex-Or) Gate
The Inhibit Gate
Logic Families
Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL)
Emitter-Coupled Logic (ECL)
CMOS Logic Families
Characteristics of Integrated Circuit Logic Gates
Categories of IC's Based on Packing Density
Typical Digital Integrated Circuits
Tri-state Logic
Semiconductor Memories
Random Access Memory
Read-Only Memory
Data Converters
A/D Converters
Key Parameters in A/D Converters and their Selection
Data Acquisition Systems for Analytical Instruments
Computer-Based Analytical Instruments
Computers in Analytical Laboratories
Digital Computer
Off-Line/On-Line Computers
Types of Digital Computers
Dedicated Microcomputers
Components of a Microcomputer
Microcomputer Unit
The Video Display Unit
Storage Systems for Microcomputers
Computer Software
System Software
Application Software
Software Creation
Connecting Laboratory Instruments to Computers
Types of Interfaces
Analog Interfaces
Digital I/O Interfaces
Serial ASCII Interface
IEEE-488 Standard Interface (HPIB, GPIB)
LAN Communication Using TCP/IP