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Printed Circuit Boards Design, Fabrication, and Assembly

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ISBN-10: 0071464204

ISBN-13: 9780071464208

Edition: 2006

Authors: R. S. Khandpur

List price: $113.00
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Description:

The printed circuit is the basic building block of the electronics hardware industry. This is a comprehensive single volume self-teaching guide to the art of printed circuit board design and fabrication -- covering the complete cycle of PCB creation, design, layout, fabrication, assembly, and testing.
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Book details

List price: $113.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
Publication date: 9/7/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 704
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 2.25" tall
Weight: 3.036
Language: English

Preface
Basics of Printed Circuit Boards
Connectivity in Electronic Equipment
Advantages of Printed Circuit Boards
Evolution of Printed Circuit Boards
Components of a Printed Circuit Board
Classification of Printed Circuit Boards
Single-sided Printed Circuit Boards
Double-sided Printed Circuit Boards
Multi-layer Boards
Rigid and Flexible Printed Circuit Boards
Manufacturing of Basic Printed Circuit Boards
Single-sided Boards
Double-sided Plated Through-holes
Multi-layer Boards
Flexible Boards
Challenges in Modern PCB Design and Manufacture
Major Market Drivers for the PCB Industry
PCBs with Embedded Components
Standards on Printed Circuit Boards
Useful Standards
Electronic Components
Basics of Electronic Components
Active vs Passive Components
Discrete vs Integrated Circuits
Component Leads
Polarity in Components
Component Symbols
Resistors
Types of Resistors
Packages
Characteristics
Variable Resistors or Potentiometers
Light-dependent Resistors (LDRs)
Thermistors
Capacitors
Types of Capacitors
Packages
Performance of Capacitors
Variable Capacitors
Inductors
Diodes
Special Types of Diodes
Zener Diode
Varactor Diode
Varistor
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
Photodiode
Tunnel Diode (TD)
Transistors
Bipolar Transistors
Power Transistors
Darlington Transistors
Field-effect Transistors
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
Transistor Type Numbers
Thyristors
Integrated Circuits (ICs)
Linear Integrated Circuits
Operational Amplifiers (OP-AMP)
Three-terminal Voltage Regulator
Digital Integrated Circuits
Logic Circuits
Microprocessors
Semiconductor Memories
Random Access Memory
Read Only Memory
Microcontrollers
Surface Mount Devices
Surface Mount Devices
Surface Mounting Semiconductor Packages
Packaging of Passive Components as SMDs
Heat Sinks
Transformer
Relays
Connectors
Useful Standards
Layout Planning and Design
Reading Drawings and Diagrams
Block Diagram
Schematic Diagram
General PCB Design Considerations
Important Design Elements
Important Performance Parameters
Mechanical Design Considerations
Types of Boards
Board Mounting Techniques
Board Guiding and Retaining
Input/Output Terminations
Board Extraction
Testing and Servicing
Mechanical Stress
Board Thickness
Important Specifications and Standards
Electrical Design Considerations
Conductor Dimensions
Resistance
Capacitance Considerations
Inductance of PCB Conductors
High Electrical Stresses
Conductor Patterns
Component Placement Rules
Conductor Width and Thickness
Conductor Spacing
Conductor Shapes
Conductor Routing and Locations
Supply and Ground Conductors
Fabrication and Assembly Considerations
Environmental Factors
Thermal Considerations
Contamination
Shock and Vibration
Cooling Requirements and Packaging Density
Heat Sinks
Packaging Density
Package Style and Physical Attributes
Layout Design
Grid Systems
Layout Scale
Layout Sketch/Design
Layout Considerations
Materials and Aids
Land Requirements
Manual Layout Procedure
Layout Methodology
Layout Design Checklist
General Considerations
Electrical Considerations
Mechanical Considerations
Documentation
Documentation File
Useful Standards
Design Considerations for Special Circuits
Design Rules for Analog Circuits
Component Placement
Signal Conductors
Supply and Ground Conductors
General Rules for Design of Analog PCBs
Design Rules for Digital Circuits
Transmission Lines
Problems in Design of PCBs for Digital Circuits
Design Rules for High Frequency Circuits
Design Rules for Fast Pulse Circuits
Controlled Impedance Considerations
Design Rules for PCBs for Microwave Circuits
Basic Definitions
Strip Line and Microstrip Line
Transmission Lines as Passive Components
General Design Considerations for Microwave Circuits
Design Rules for Power Electronic Circuits
Separating Power Circuits in High and Low Power Parts
Base Material Thickness
Copper Foil Thickness
Conductor Width
Resistive Drop of Voltage
Thermal Considerations
High-density Interconnection Structures
Drivers for HDI
Advantages of HDI
Designing for HDI
Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility (EMI/EMC)
Useful Standards
Artwork Generation
What is Artwork?
Basic Approach to Manual Artwork
Ink Drawing on White Card Board Sheets
Black Taping on Transparent Base Foil
Red and Blue Tape on Transparent Polyester Base Foil
General Design Guidelines for Artwork Preparation
Conductor Orientation
Conductor Routing
Conductor Spacing
Hole Diameter and Solder Pad Diameter
The Square Land/Pad
Artwork Generation Guidelines
No Conductor Zone
Pad Centre Holes
Conductor and Solder Pad Joints
Film Master Preparation
Photographic Film
Exposure through Camera
Dark Room
Film Development
Automated Artwork Generation
Computer- Aided Design (CAD)
System Requirements
Basic CAD Operation
Layout Procedure
Library Manager
Component Placement
Conductor Routing
Checking
Design Automation
How to Judge CAD Systems?
Manual Versus Automation in PCB Design
Photoplotter
Vector Photoplotter
Raster (Laser) Plotters
Talking to Photoplotters
Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
Data Transfer Mechanisms
PCB Design Checklist
Useful Relevant Standards
Copper Clad Laminates
Anatomy of Laminates
Fillers (Reinforcements)
Resins
Copper Foil
Manufacture of Laminates
Materials
Process
Properties of Laminates
Electrical Properties
Dielectric Strength
Dielectric Constant
Dissipation Factor
Insulation Resistance
Surface Resistivity
Volume Resistivity
Dielectric Breakdown
Types of Laminates
Phenolic Laminates
Epoxy Laminates
Glass Cloth Laminates
Prepreg Material [B-Stage]
PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) Laminates
Polyester Laminates (Mylar Lamination)
Silicone Laminates
Melamine Laminates
Polyamide Laminates
Teflon Laminates
Mixed Dielectric Laminates
Evaluation of Laminates
Laminate Testing
Surface and Appearance
Water Absorption
Punchability and Machinability
Peel Strength
Bond Strength
Solder Resistance
Warp and Twist
Flexural Strength
Flammability
Glass Transition Temperature
Dimensional Stability
Copper Adhesion
Useful Standards
Image Transfer Techniques
What is Image Transfer?
Laminate Surface Preparation
Manual Cleaning Process
Mechanical Cleaning
Test for Cleanliness
Screen Printing
Screen Frame
Screen Cloth
Screen Preparation
Squeegees
Pattern Transferring Techniques
Screen Stencil Method
Indirect Method [Transfer Type Screen Method]
Knife-cut or Hand-cut Film Process
Photographic Techniques
Printing Inks
Ultraviolet Curing Inks
Printing Process
Manual Screen Printing Process
Automatic or Semi-automatic Screen Printing Process
Photo Printing
Liquid Photo-resist (Wet Film Resist)
Dry Film Photo-resists
Laser Direct Imaging (LDI)
Benefits of LDI
Legend Printing
Useful Standards
Plating Processes
Need for Plating
Electroplating
The Basic Electroplating Process
Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis
Water Quality
pH of a Solution
Buffer
Anodes
Anode Bags
Pre-treatment for Electroplating
Plating Techniques
Immersion Plating
Electroless Plating
Electroplating
General Problems in Plating
General Plating Defects
Voids
Blow Holes
Outgassing
Special Plating Techniques
Through-hole Plating
Reel-to-Reel Selective Plating
Brush Plating
Finger Plating
Conductor Metal Paste Coating
Reduction Silver Spraying
Metal Distribution and Plating Thickness
Analysis of Solution (Wet Chemical Analysis)
Physical Tests for Solutions
Testing of Electrodeposits
Considerations for Shop Floor
Plating Shop Layout
Equipment
Additive Processing
Fully Additive Process
Semi Additive Process
Partially Additive Process
Solder Mask
Solder Resist Classification
Liquid Film Solder Mask
Dry Film Solder Masking
Resolution
Encapsulation
Surface Topography Resist Thickness
Placement Assistance
Reliability of Solder Mask
Soldering and Cleaning
Tenting of Vias
Solder Mask over Bare Copper [SMOBC]
Conformal Coatings
Materials for Conformal Coatings
Methods of Applying Conformal Coatings
Standards for Coatings
Useful Standards
Etching Techniques
Etching Solutions and Chemistry
Ferric Chloride
Hydrogen Peroxide - Sulphuric Acid
Chromic-Sulphuric Acid
Cupric Chloride
Ammonium Persulphate
Alkaline Ammoniacal/Ammonium Chloride
Etching Arrangements
Simple Batch Production Etching
Continuous Feed Etching
Open Loop Regeneration
Closed Loop Regeneration
Etching Parameters
Equipment and Techniques
Immersion Etching
Bubble Etching
Splash Etching
Spray Etching
Etching Equipment Selection
Optimizing Etchant Economy
Problems in Etching
Under-etching or Under-cut
Overhang
Facilities for Etching Area
Electrochemical Etching
Mechanical Etching
Mechanical Operations
Need for Mechanical Operations
Cutting Methods
Shearing
Sawing
Blanking of PCBs
Milling
Routing of PCBs
Hole Punching
Drilling
Drill Bit Geometry and its Importance
Types of Drill Bits
Drill Bit Inspection
Drill Bit Sizes
Tool Life and Re-grinding (Re-pointing)
Requirements in Drilling
Drill Speed, Feed and Withdrawal Rates
Function of Clean Holes
Drill Entry and Exit (Back-up) Materials
Use of Drill Bush/Collar
Drilling and Types of Laminates
Drilling Problems
Drilling Machines
Microvias
Photo-formed Vias
Plasma Etching
Laser-formed Vias
Use of UV Laser for Drilling PCB
Hybrid Laser Drilling Process
Useful Standards
Multi-layer Boards
What are Multi-layers?
Interconnection Techniques
Conventional Plated Through-hole
Buried Via
Blind Vias
Materials for Multi-layer Boards
Resin System
Reinforcement Materials
Prepreg
Copper Foil
Design Features of Multi-layer Boards
Mechanical Design Considerations
Electrical Design Considerations
Fabrication Process for Multi-layer Boards
General Process
Lamination
Post-lamination Process
Multi-layer Drilling
Schematic Key for Multi-layer Built-ups
Useful Standards
Flexible Printed Circuit Boards
What are Flexible Printed Circuit Boards?
Construction of Flexible Printed Circuit Boards
Films - Types and Their Characteristics
Foils
Adhesives
Design Considerations in Flexible Circuits
Difference in Design Considerations of Rigid and Flexible Circuits
Step-by-step Approach to Designing of a Flex Circuit
Designing for Flexibility and Reliability
Manufacture of Flexible Circuits
Rigid Flex Printed Circuit Boards
Terminations
Advantages of Flexible Circuits
Special Applications of Flexible Circuits
Useful Standards
Soldering, Assembly and Re-working Techniques
What is Soldering?
Theory of Soldering
The Wetting Action
Surface Tension
Creation of an Inter-metallic Compound
The Wetting Angle
Soldering Variables
Temperature and Time Taken for Soldering
Tarnish-free Surface
Application of Right Flux and Proper Solder
Soldering Material
Solder
Flux
Soldering and Brazing
Solders for Hard Soldering/Brazing
Soldering Tools
Soldering Iron
Other Hand Soldering Tools
Cutters
Pliers
Strippers
Bending Tools
Heat Sinks
General Cleaning Tools
Hand Soldering
Hand Soldering Requirements
Steps in Hand Soldering
Soldering Leadless Capacitors
PCB Assembly Process
Leaded Through-hole Assembly
Surface Mount Assembly
Combinations of Mixed Technologies
Solder Pastes for SMDS
Requirements of Solder Pastes
Composition of Solder Pastes
Solder Paste Application
Handling of Solder Paste
Stencil Printing of Solder Paste
Screen Printing of Solder Paste
Pre-forms of Solder
No-clean Solder Paste
Adhesive for Mixed Technology Assembly
Requirements of Adhesive
Application of Adhesive
Mass Soldering
Dip Soldering
Drag Soldering
Wave Soldering
Reflow Soldering
Vapour Phase System
Post-soldering Cleaning
Types of Contamination
Solvents and Cleaning Methods
Quality Control of Solder Joints
Good Quality Solder Joints
Common Soldering Faults
Solder Joint Defects and their Common Causes
Health and Safety Aspects
Electrostatic Discharge Control
Fundamentals of ESD
Electrostatic Voltages Generated by Various Operations
Sensitivity of Various Components to ESD Voltages
Electrostatic Protection
Anti-static Workstation
A Proper Assembly Environment
Component Handling
Special Considerations for Handling MOS Devices
Education/Certificate for ESD Control
Re-work and Repair of Printed Circuit Boards
Approaching Components for Tests
De-soldering Techniques
Replacement of Components
Repairing Surface Mounted PCBs
Cut all Leads
Heating Methods
Removal and Replacement of Surface Mount Devices
Re-work Stations
Useful Standards
Quality, Reliability and Acceptability Aspects
What is Quality Assurance?
Classification of Defects
Defectives
Acceptability Quality Level (AQL)
Quality Control Programme
Statistical Process Control and Sampling Plan
Testing for Quality Control
Characteristics for Testing for Quality Assurance
Designing a QA Programme
Incoming QA
Traceability
Quality Control Methods
Micro-sectioning
Testing of Printed Circuit Boards
Automatic Board Testing
Bare Board Testing (BBT)
Testing of Assembled Boards
Reliability Testing
Reliability of Printed Circuit Boards
Acceptability of PCBs
Acceptance Criteria
Inspection of Assembled PCBs
Inspection Techniques
Acceptability Criteria
Useful Standards
Environmental Concerns in PCB Industry
Pollution Control in PCB Industry
Polluting Agents
Recycling of Water
Recovery Techniques
Filtration
Water Use Reduction Technique
Ion Exchange System
Reverse Osmosis
Evaporative Recovery
Precipitation of Heavy Metals
Electrolytic Recovery
Air Pollution
Dust
Fumes
Clean Environment in Assembly Rooms
Recycling of Printed Circuit Boards
Present Approach to PCB Scrap Disposal
Characteristics of PCB Scrap
Dis-assembly of Equipment
Technologies of Recycling of PCBs
Environmental Standards
Safety Precautions for the Personnel
Toxic Chemicals in PCB Fabrication
Lead-free Soldering
Substitutes for Tin/Lead Solders
Useful Standards
Glossary
References
Index