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Neuroanatomy Text and Atlas

ISBN-10: 007138183X

ISBN-13: 9780071381833

Edition: 3rd 2003 (Revised)

Authors: John H. Martin

List price: $77.00
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Description:

Approaching neuroanatomy from both a functional and regional perspective, this text also examines those parts of the nervous system that work together to produce behaviour. This third edition features new examples of MRI and PET images and angiography.
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Book details

List price: $77.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division
Publication date: 3/27/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 532
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.982
Language: English

Preface
Acknowledgments
Guide to Using This Book
The Central Nervous System
Introduction to the Central Nervous System
Neurons and Glia Are the Two Principal Cellular Constituents of the Nervous System
The Nervous System Consists of Separate Peripheral and Central Components
The Spinal Cord Displays the Simplest Organization of All Seven Major Divisions
The Brain Stem and Cerebellum Regulate Body Functions and Movements
The Diencephalon Consists of the Thalamus and Hypothalamus
The Cerebral Hemispheres Have the Most Complex Three-Dimensional Configuration of All Central Nervous System Divisions
Cavities Within the Central Nervous System Contain Cerebrospinal Fluid
The Central Nervous System Is Covered by Three Meningeal Layers
An Introduction to Neuroanatomical Terms
Summary
Structural and Functional Organization of the Central Nervous System
The Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal System and Corticospinal Tract Have a Component at Each Level of the Neuraxis
The Modulatory Systems of the Brain Have Diffuse Connections and Use Different Neurotransmitters
Guidelines for Studying the Regional Anatomy and Interconnections of the Central Nervous System
The Spinal Cord Has a Central Cellular Region Surrounded by a Region That Contains Myelinated Axons
Surface Features of the Brain Stem Mark Key Internal Structures
The Internal Capsule Contains Ascending and Descending Axons
Cerebral Cortex Neurons Are Organized Into Layers
The Cerebral Cortex Has an Input-Output Organization
The Cytoarchitectonic Map of the Cerebral Cortex Is the Basis for a Map of Cortical Function
Summary
Development of the Central Nervous System
The Neurons and Glial Cells Derive From Cells of the Neural Plate
The Neural Tube Forms Five Brain Vesicles and the Spinal Cord
The Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Have a Segmented Structure
The Location of Developing Spinal Cord and Brain Stem Nuclei Determine Their Functions and Connections
The Cerebellum Develops From the Rhombic Lips
The Rostral Portion of the Neural Tube Gives Rise to the Diencephalon and Cerebral Hemispheres
Summary
Vasculature of the Central Nervous System and the Cerebrospinal Fluid
Neural Tissue Depends on Continuous Arterial Blood Supply
The Vertebral and Carotid Arteries Supply Blood to the Central Nervous System
The Spinal and Radicular Arteries Supply Blood to the Spinal Cord
The Vertebral and Basilar Arteries Supply Blood to the Brain Stem
The Internal Carotid Artery Has Four Principal Portions
The Anterior and Posterior Circulations Supply the Diencephalon and Cerebral Hemispheres
Cerebral Veins Drain Into the Dural Sinuses
The Blood-Brain Barrier Isolates the Chemical Environment of the Central Nervous System From That of the Rest of the Body
Cerebrospinal Fluid Serves Many Diverse Functions
Summary
Sensory Systems
Spinal Somatic Sensory Systems
Functional Anatomy of the Spinal Somatic Sensory Pathways
The Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal System and the Anterolateral System Mediate Different Somatic Sensations
The Two Ascending Somatic Sensory Pathways Each Receive Inputs From Different Classes of Sensory Receptor Neurons
The Somatic Sensory Pathways Have Different Relay Nuclei in the Spinal Cord and Brain Stem
The Two Ascending Somatic Sensory Pathways Decussate at Different Levels of the Neuraxis
The Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal and Anterolateral Systems Synapse in Different Brain Stem, Diencephalic, and Cortical Regions
Regional Anatomy of the Spinal Somatic Sensory Pathways
The Peripheral Axon Terminals of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Contain the Somatic Sensory Receptor
Dorsal Root Axons With Different Diameters Terminate in Different Central Nervous System Locations
The Dorsal Columns Contain Ascending Branches of Mechanoreceptive Sensory Fibers
The Somatotopic Organization of the Dorsal Columns Is Revealed in Human Postmortem Specimens
The Decussation of the Dorsal Column--Medial Lemniscal System Is in the Caudal Medulla
Vascular Lesions of the Medulla Differentially Affect Somatic Sensory Function
Descending Pain Suppression Pathways Originate From the Brain Stem
Three Separate Nuclei in the Thalamus Process Somatic Sensory Information
Several Areas of the Parietal Lobe Process Touch and Proprioceptive Information
Limbic and Insular Areas Contain the Cortical Representations of Pain, Itch, and Temperature Sensations
Summary
Cranial Nerves and the Trigeminal and Viscerosensory Systems
Cranial Nerves and Nuclei
Important Differences Exist Between the Sensory and Motor Innervation of Cranial Structures and That of the Limbs and Trunk
There Are Seven Functional Categories of Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerve Nuclei Are Organized Into Rostrocaudal Columns
Functional Anatomy of the Trigeminal and Viscerosensory Systems
Separate Trigeminal Pathways Mediate Touch and Pain and Temperature Senses
The Viscerosensory System Originates from the Caudal Solitary Nucleus
Regional Anatomy of the Trigeminal and Viscerosensory Systems
Separate Sensory Roots Innervate Different Parts of the Face and Mucous Membranes of the Head
The Key Components of the Trigeminal System Are Present at All Levels of the Brain Stem
The Caudal Solitary and Parabrachial Nuclei Are Key Brain Stem Viscerosensory Integrative Centers
The Ventral Posterior Nucleus Contains Separate Trigeminal and Spinal Subdivisions and Projects to the Postcentral Gyrus
The Thalamic Viscerosensory Relay Nucleus Projects to the Insular Cortex
Summary
The Visual System
Functional Anatomy of the Visual System
Anatomically Separate Visual Pathways Mediate Perception and Ocular Reflex Function
The Pathway to the Primary Visual Cortex Is Important for Perception of the Form, Color, and Motion of Visual Stimuli
The Pathway to the Midbrain Is Important in Voluntary and Reflexive Control of the Eyes
Regional Anatomy of the Visual System
Optical Properties of the Eye Transform Visual Stimuli
The Retina Contains Five Major Layers
Each Optic Nerve Contains All of the Axons of Ganglion Cells in the Ipsilateral Retina
The Superior Colliculus Is Important in Oculomotor Control and Orientation
The Retinotopic Maps in Each Layer of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Are Aligned
The Primary Visual Cortex Is the Target of Projections From the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
The Magnocellular and Parvocellular Systems Have Differential Laminar Projections in the Primary Visual Cortex
The Primary Visual Cortex Has a Columnar Organization
Higher-Order Visual Cortical Areas Analyze Distinct Aspects of Visual Stimuli
The Visual Field Changes in Characteristic Ways After Damage to the Visual System
Summary
The Auditory System
Functional Anatomy of the Auditory System
Parallel Ascending Auditory Pathways May Be Involved in Different Aspects of Hearing
Regional Anatomy of the Auditory System
The Auditory Sensory Organs Are Located Within the Membranous Labyrinth
The Topography of Connections Between Brain Stem Auditory Nuclei Provides Insight Into the Functions of Parallel Ascending Auditory Pathways
The Olivocochlear System May Regulate Hair Cell Sensitivity
Auditory Brain Stem Axons Ascend in the Lateral Lemniscus
The Inferior Colliculus Is Located in the Midbrain Tectum
The Medial Geniculate Nucleus Contains a Division That Is Tonotopically Organized
The Auditory Cortical Areas Are Located on the Superior Surface of the Temporal Lobe
Summary
Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
The Gustatory System: Taste
The Ascending Gustatory Pathway Projects to the Ipsilateral Insular Cortex
Regional Anatomy of the Gustatory System
Branches of the Facial, Glossopharyngeal, and Vagus Nerves Innervate Different Parts of the Oral Cavity
The Solitary Nucleus Is the First Central Nervous System Relay for Taste
The Parvocellular Portion of the Ventral Posterior Medial Nucleus Relays Gustatory Information to the Insular Cortex and Operculum
The Olfactory System: Smell
The Olfactory Projection to the Cerebral Cortex Does Not Relay in the Thalamus
Regional Anatomy of the Olfactory System
The Primary Olfactory Neurons Are Located in the Nasal Mucosa
The Olfactory Bulb Is the First Central Nervous System Relay for Olfactory Input
The Olfactory Bulb Projects to Structures on the Ventral Brain Surface Through the Olfactory Tract
The Primary Olfactory Cortex Receives a Direct Input From the Olfactory Bulb
Projections From the Olfactory Bulb to the Cortex Have a Parallel Organization
Summary
Motor Systems
Descending Motor Pathways and the Motor Function of the Spinal Cord
Functional Anatomy of the Motor Systems and the Descending Motor Pathways
Diverse Central Nervous System Structures Comprise the Motor Systems
Many Cortical Regions Are Recruited Into Action During Visually Guided Movements
There Are Three Functional Classes of Descending Pathways
Multiple Parallel Motor Control Pathways Originate From the Cortex and Brain Stem
Motor Pathways of the Spinal Cord Have a Hierarchical Organization
The Functional Organization of the Descending Pathways Parallels the Somatotopic Organization of the Motor Nuclei in the Ventral Horn
Regional Anatomy of the Motor Systems and the Descending Motor Pathways
The Cortical Motor Areas Are Located in the Frontal Lobe
The Projection From Cortical Motor Regions Passes Through the Internal Capsule En Route to the Brain Stem and Spinal Cord
The Corticospinal Tract Courses in the Base of the Midbrain
Descending Cortical Fibers Separate Into Small Fascicles in the Ventral Pons
The Pontine and Medullary Reticular Formation Gives Rise to the Reticulospinal Tracts
The Lateral Corticospinal Tract Decussates in the Caudal Medulla
The Intermediate Zone and Ventral Horn of the Spinal Cord Receive Input From the Descending Pathways
Lesions of the Descending Cortical Pathway in the Brain and Spinal Cord Produce Flaccid Paralysis Followed by Spasticity
Summary
Cranial Nerve Motor Nuclei and Brain Stem Motor Functions
Organization and Functional Anatomy of Cranial Motor Nuclei
There Are Three Columns of Cranial Nerve Motor Nuclei
The Cranial Motor Nuclei Are Controlled by the Cerebral Cortex and Diencephalon
Neurons in the Somatic Skeletal Motor Column Innervate the Tongue and Extraocular Muscles
The Branchiomeric Motor Column Innervates Skeletal Muscles That Develop From the Branchial Arches
The Autonomic Motor Column Contains Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons
Regional Anatomy of Cranial Motor Nuclei
Lesion of the Genu of the Internal Capsule Interrupts the Corticobulbar Tract
Parasympathetic Neurons in the Midbrain Regulate Pupil Size
The Descending Cortical Fibers Break Up Into Small Fascicles in the Pons
The Trigeminal Motor Nucleus Is Medial to the Main Trigeminal Sensory Nucleus
The Fibers of the Facial Nerve Have a Complex Trajectory Through the Pons
The Glossopharyngeal Nerve Enters and Exits From the Rostral Medulla
A Level Through the Midmedulla Reveals the Locations of Six Cranial Nerve Nuclei
The Spinal Accessory Nucleus Is Located at the Junction of the Spinal Cord and Medulla
Summary
The Vestibular and Oculomotor Systems
Functional Anatomy of the Vestibular System
An Ascending Pathway From the Vestibular Nuclei to the Thalamus Is Important for Perception and Orientation
The Vestibular Nuclei Have Functionally Distinct Efferent Projections for Axial Muscle Control and Perception
Functional Anatomy of the Oculomotor System and the Control of Gaze
The Extraocular Motor Neurons Are Located in Three Cranial Nerve Motor Nuclei
Voluntary Eye Movement Direction Is Controlled by Neurons in the Frontal Lobe and the Parietal-Temporal-Occipital Association Cortex
The Vestibuloocular Reflex Maintains Direction of Gaze During Head Movement
Regional Organization of the Vestibular and Oculomotor Systems
Vestibular Nerve Fibers Project to the Vestibular Nuclei and the Cerebellum
The Vestibular Nuclei Have Functionally Diverse Projections
The Extraocular Motor Nuclei Are Located in the Pons and Midbrain
Rostral Midbrain Neurons Organize Vertical Saccades
Eye Movement Control Involves the Integrated Functions of Many Brain Stem Structures
The Ventral Posterior Nucleus of the Thalamus Transmits Vestibular Information to the Parietal and Insular Cortical Areas
Multiple Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Function in Eye Movement Control
Summary
The Cerebellum
Gross Anatomy of the Cerebellum
Functional Anatomy of the Cerebellum
All Three Functional Divisions of the Cerebellum Display a Similar Input-Output Organization
Regional Anatomy of the Cerebellum
The Intrinsic Circuitry of the Cerebellar Cortex Is Similar for the Different Functional Divisions
Spinal Cord and Medullary Sections Reveal Nuclei and Paths Transmitting Somatic Sensory Information to the Cerebellum
The Inferior Olivary Nucleus Is the Only Source of Climbing Fibers
The Vestibulocerebellum Receives Input From Primary and Secondary Vestibular Neurons
The Pontine Nuclei Provide the Major Input to the Cerebrocerebellum
The Deep Cerebellar Nuclei Are Located Within the White Matter
The Superior Cerebellar Peduncle Decussates in the Caudal Midbrain
The Ventrolateral Nucleus Relays Cerebellar Output to the Premotor and Primary Motor Cortical Areas
Summary
The Basal Ganglia
Functional Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
Separate Components of the Basal Ganglia Process Incoming Information and Mediate the Output
Parallel Circuits Course Through the Basal Ganglia
Knowledge of Basal Ganglia Connections and Neurotransmitters Provides Insight Into Their Function in Health and Disease
Regional Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
The Anterior Limb of the Internal Capsule Separates the Head of the Caudate Nucleus From the Putamen
Cell Bridges Link the Caudate Nucleus and the Putamen
The External Segment of the Globus Pallidus and the Ventral Pallidum Are Separated by the Anterior Commissure
The Ansa Lenticularis and the Lenticular Fasciculus Are Output Paths of the Internal Segment of the Globus Pallidus
Lesion of the Subthalamic Region Produces Hemiballism
The Substantia Nigra Contains Two Anatomical Divisions
The Vascular Supply of the Basal Ganglia Is Provided by the Middle Cerebral Artery
Summary
Integrative Systems
The Hypothalamus and Regulation of Endocrine and Visceral Functions
Functional Anatomy of the Neuroendocrine Systems
The Hypothalamus Is Divided Into Three Functionally Distinct Mediolateral Zones
Separate Parvocellular and Magnocellular Neurosecretory Systems Regulate Hormone Release From the Anterior and Posterior Lobes of the Pituitary
Functional Anatomy of Autonomic Nervous System Control
The Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Divisions of the Authonomic Nervous System Originate From Different Central Nervous System Locations
Hypothalamic Nuclei Coordinate Integrated Responses to Body and Environmental Stimuli via Local Circuits and Descending Visceral Motor Pathways
Regional Anatomy of the Hypothalamus
The Preoptic Area Influences Release of Reproductive Hormones From the Anterior Pituitary
The Supraoptic and Paraventricular Nuclei Comprise the Magnocellular Neurosecretory System
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Is the Master Clock for Circadian Rhythms
Parvocellular Neurosecretory Neurons Project to the Median Eminence
The Posterior Hypothalamus Contains the Mammillary Bodies
Neurons in the Lateral Hypothalamic Area Can Have Widespread Effects on Cortical Neuron Function
Descending Autonomic Fibers Course in the Periaqueductal Gray Matter and in the Lateral Tegmentum
Nuclei in the Pons Are Important for Bladder Control
Dorsolateral Brain Stem Lesions Interrupt Descending Sympathetic Fibers
Preganglionic Neurons Are Located in the Lateral Intermediate Zone of the Spinal Cord
Summary
The Limbic System and Cerebral Circuits for Emotions, Learning, and Memory
Anatomical and Functional Overview of Neural Systems for Emotions, Learning, and Memory
The Limbic Association Cortex Is Located on the Medial Surface of the Frontal, Parietal, and Temporal Lobes
The Hippocampal Formation Plays a Role in Memory Consolidation
The Amygdala Contains Three Major Functional Divisions
Connections Exist Between Components of the Limbic System and the Effector Systems
All Major Neurotransmitter Regulatory Systems Have Projections to the Limbic System
Regional Anatomy of Neural Systems for Emotions, Learning, and Memory
The Nucleus Accumbens and Olfactory Tubercle Comprise Part of the Basal Forebrain
Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Systems Have Diffuse Limbic and Neocortical Projections
The Cingulum Courses Beneath the Cingulate and Parahippocampal Gyri
The Three Nuclear Divisions of the Amygdala Are Revealed in Coronal Section
The Hippocampal Formation Is Located in the Floor of the Inferior Horn of the Lateral Ventricle
A Sagittal Cut Through the Mammillary Bodies Reveals the Fornix and Mammillothalamic Tract
Nuclei in the Brain Stem Link Telencephalic and Diencephalic Limbic Structures With the Autonomic Nervous System and the Spinal Cord
Summary
Atlas
Surface Topography of the Central Nervous System
Myelin-Stained Sections Through the Central Nervous System
Glossary
Index