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Measurement Systems Application and Design

ISBN-10: 0070173389

ISBN-13: 9780070173385

Edition: 4th 1990

Authors: Ernest O. Doebelin

List price: $126.25
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Book details

List price: $126.25
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 1990
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 992
Size: 6.61" wide x 9.41" long x 2.20" tall
Weight: 3.498
Language: English

Preface
About the Author
General Concepts
Types of Applications of Measurement Instrumentation
Why Study Measurement Systems?
Classification of Types of Measurement Applications
Computer-Aided Machines and Processes
Conclusion
Problems
Bibliography
Generalized Configurations and Functional Descriptions of Measuring Instruments
Functional Elements of an Instrument
Active and Passive Transducers
Analog and Digital Modes of Operation
Null and Deflection Methods
Input-Output Configuration of Instruments and Measurement Systems
Methods of Correction for Interfering and Modifying Inputs
Conclusion
Problems
Generalized Performance Characteristics of Instruments
Introduction
Static Characteristics and Static Calibration
Meaning of Static Calibration
Measured Value versus True Value
Some Basic Statistics
Least-Squares Calibration Curves
Calibration Accuracy versus Installed Accuracy
Combination of Component Errors in Overall System-Accuracy Calculations
Theory Validation by Experimental Testing
Effect of Measurement Error on Quality-Control Decisions in Manufacturing
Static Sensitivity
Computer-Aided Calibration and Measurement: Multiple Regression
Linearity
Threshold, Noise Floor, Resolution, Hysteresis, and Dead Space
Scale Readability
Span
Generalized Static Stiffness and Input Impedance: Loading Effects
Concluding Remarks on Static Characteristics
Dynamic Characteristics
Generalized Mathematical Model of Measurement System
Digital Simulation Methods for Dynamic Response Analysis
Operational Transfer Function
Sinusoidal Transfer Function
Zero-Order Instrument
First-Order Instrument
Step Response of First-Order Instruments
Ramp Response of First-Order Instruments
Frequency Response of First-Order Instruments
Impulse Response of First-Order Instruments
Second-Order Instrument
Step Response of Second-Order Instruments
Terminated-Ramp Response of Second-Order Instruments
Ramp Response of Second-Order Instruments
Frequency Response of Second-Order Instruments
Impulse Response of Second-Order Instruments
Dead-Time Elements
Logarithmic Plotting of Frequency-Response Curves
Response of a General Form of Instrument to a Periodic Input
Response of a General Form of Instrument to a Transient Input
Frequency Spectra of Amplitude-Modulated Signals
Characteristics of Random Signals
Requirements on Instrument Transfer Function to Ensure Accurate Measurement
Sensor Selection Using Computer Simulation
Numerical Correction of Dynamic Data
Experimental Determination of Measurement-System Parameters
Loading Effects under Dynamic Conditions
Problems
Bibliography
Measuring Devices
Motion and Dimensional Measurement
Introduction
Fundamental Standards
Relative Displacement: Translational and Rotational
Calibration
Resistive Potentiometers
Resistance Strain Gage
Differential Transformers
Synchros and Resolvers
Variable-Inductance and Variable-Reluctance Pickups
Eddy-Current Noncontacting Transducers
Capacitance Pickups
Piezoelectric Transducers
Electro-Optical Devices
Photographic and Electronic-Imaging Techniques
Photoelastic, Brittle-Coating, and Moire Fringe Stress-Analysis Techniques
Displacement-to-Pressure (Nozzle-Flapper) Transducer
Digital Displacement Transducers (Translational and Rotary Encoders)
Ultrasonic Transducers
Relative Velocity: Translational and Rotational
Calibration
Velocity by Electrical Differentiation of Displacement Voltage Signals
Average Velocity from Measured [Delta]x and [Delta]t
Mechanical Flyball Angular-Velocity Sensor
Mechanical Revolution Counters and Timers
Tachometer Encoder Methods
Laser-Based Methods
Radar (Microwave) Speed Sensors
Stroboscopic Methods
Translational-Velocity Transducers (Moving-Coil and Moving-Magnet Pickups)
DC Tachometer Generators for Rotary-Velocity Measurement
AC Tachometer Generators for Rotary-Velocity Measurement
Eddy-Current Drag-Cup Tachometer
Relative-Acceleration Measurements
Seismic- (Absolute-) Displacement Pickups
Seismic- (Absolute-) Velocity Pickups
Seismic- (Absolute-) Acceleration Pickups (Accelerometers)
Deflection-Type Accelerometers
Null-Balance- (Servo-) Type Accelerometers
Accelerometers for Inertial Navigation
Mechanical Loading of Accelerometers on the Test Object
Laser Doppler Vibrometers
Calibration of Vibration Pickups
Jerk Pickups
Pendulous (Gravity-Referenced) Angular-Displacement Sensors
Gyroscopic (Absolute) Angular-Displacement and Velocity Sensors
Coordinate-Measuring Machines
Surface-Finish Measurement
Machine Vision
The Global-Positioning System (GPS)
Problems
Bibliography
Force, Torque, and Shaft Power Measurement
Standards and Calibration
Basic Methods of Force Measurement
Characteristics of Elastic Force Transducers
Bonded-Strain-Gage Transducers
Differential-Transformer Transducers
Piezoelectric Transducers
Variable-Reluctance/FM-Oscillator Digital Systems
Loading Effects
Resolution of Vector Forces and Moments into Rectangular Components
Torque Measurement on Rotating Shafts
Shaft Power Measurement (Dynamometers)
Gyroscopic Force and Torque Measurement
Vibrating-Wire Force Transducers
Problems
Bibliography
Pressure and Sound Measurement
Standards and Calibration
Basic Methods of Pressure Measurement
Deadweight Gages and Manometers
Manometer Dynamics
Elastic Transducers
Vibrating-Cylinder and Other Resonant Transducers
Dynamic Effects of Volumes and Connecting Tubing
Liquid Systems Heavily Damped, and Slow-Acting
Liquid Systems Moderately Damped, and Fast-Acting
Gas Systems with Tube Volume a Small Fraction of Chamber Volume
Gas Systems with Tube Volume Comparable to Chamber Volume
The Infinite Line-Pressure Probe
Conclusion
Dynamic Testing of Pressure-Measuring Systems
High-Pressure Measurement
Low-Pressure (Vacuum) Measurement
Diaphragm Gages
McLeod Gage
Knudsen Gage
Momentum-Transfer (Viscosity) Gages
Thermal-Conductivity Gages
Ionization Gages
Dual-Gage Technique
Sound Measurement
Sound-Level Meter
Microphones
Pressure Response of a Capacitor Microphone
Acoustic Intensity
Acoustic Emission
Pressure-Signal Multiplexing Systems
Special Topics
Pressure Distribution
Overpressure Protection for Gages and Transducers
Problems
Bibliography
Flow Measurement
Local Flow Velocity, Magnitude and Direction
Flow Visualization
Velocity Magnitude from Pitot-Static Tube
Velocity Direction from Yaw Tube, Pivoted Vane, and Servoed Sphere
Dynamic Wind-Vector Indicator
Hot-Wire and Hot-Film Anemometers
Hot-Film Shock-Tube Velocity Sensors
Laser Doppler Anemometer
Gross Volume Flow Rate
Calibration and Standards
Constant-Area, Variable-Pressure-Drop Meters ("Obstruction" Meters)
Averaging Pitot Tubes
Constant-Pressure-Drop, Variable-Area Meters (Rotameters)
Turbine Meters
Positive-Displacement Meters
Metering Pumps
Electromagnetic Flowmeters
Drag-Force Flowmeters
Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Vortex-Shedding Flowmeters
Miscellaneous Topics
Gross Mass Flow Rate
Volume Flowmeter Plus Density Measurement
Direct Mass Flowmeters
Problems
Bibliography
Temperature and Heat-Flux Measurement
Standards and Calibration
Thermal-Expansion Methods
Bimetallic Thermometers
Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
Pressure Thermometers
Thermoelectric Sensors (Thermocouples)
Common Thermocouples
Reference-Junction Considerations
Special Materials, Configurations, and Techniques
Electrical-Resistance Sensors
Conductive Sensors (Resistance Thermometers)
Bulk Semiconductor Sensors (Thermistors)
Junction Semiconductor Sensors
Digital Thermometers
Radiation Methods
Radiation Fundamentals
Radiation Detectors: Thermal and Photon
Unchopped (DC) Broadband Radiation Thermometers
Chopped (AC) Broadband Radiation Thermometers
Chopped (AC) Selective-Band (Photon) Radiation Thermometers
Automatic Null-Balance Radiation Thermometers
Monochromatic-Brightness Radiation Thermometers (Optical Pyrometers)
Two-Color Radiation Thermometers
Blackbody-Tipped Fiber-Optic Radiation Thermometer
Fluoroptic Temperature Measurement
Infrared Imaging Systems
Temperature-Measuring Problems in Flowing Fluids
Conduction Error
Radiation Error
Velocity Effects
Dynamic Response of Temperature Sensors
Dynamic Compensation of Temperature Sensors
Heat-Flux Sensors
Slug-Type (Calorimeter) Sensors
Steady-State or Asymptotic Sensors (Gardon Gage)
Application Considerations
Problems
Bibliography
Miscellaneous Measurements
Time, Frequency, and Phase-Angle Measurement
Liquid Level
Humidity
Chemical Composition
Current and Power Measurement
Using "Observers" to Measure Inaccessible Variables in a Physical System
Sensor Fusion (Complementary Filtering)
Absolute Angle Measurement
Problems
Bibliography
Manipulation, Transmission, and Recording of Data
Manipulating, Computing, and Compensating Devices
Bridge Circuits
Amplifiers
Operational Amplifiers
Instrumentation Amplifiers
Transconductance and Transimpedance Amplifiers
Noise Problems, Shielding, and Grounding
Chopper, Chopper-Stabilized, and Carrier Amplifiers
Charge Amplifiers and Impedance Converters
Concluding Remarks
Filters
Low-Pass Filters
High-Pass Filters
Bandpass Filters
Band-Rejection Filters
Digital Filters
A Hydraulic Bandpass Filter for an Oceanographic Transducer
Mechanical Filters for Accelerometers
Filtering by Statistical Averaging
Integration and Differentiation
Integration
Differentiation
Dynamic Compensation
Positioning Systems
Addition and Subtraction
Multiplication and Division
Function Generation and Linearization
Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation
Voltage-to-Frequency and Frequency-to-Voltage Converters
Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Converters; Sample/Hold Amplifiers
Signal and System Analyzers (Spectrum Analyzers)
Problems
Bibliography
Data Transmission and Instrument Connectivity
Cable Transmission of Analog Voltage and Current Signals
Cable Transmission of Digital Data
Fiber-Optic Data Transmission
Radio Telemetry
Pneumatic Transmission
Synchro Position Repeater Systems
Slip Rings and Rotary Transformers
Instrument Connectivity
Data Storage with Delayed Playback (An Alternative to Data Transmission)
Problems
Bibliography
Voltage-Indicating and -Recording Devices
Standards and Calibration
Analog Voltmeters and Potentiometers
Digital Voltmeters and Multimeters
Electromechanical Servotype XT and XY Recorders
Thermal-Array Recorders and Data Acquisition Systems
Analog and Digital Cathode-Ray Oscilloscopes/Displays and Liquid-Crystal Flat-Panel Displays
Virtual Instruments
Magnetic Tape and Disk Recorders/Reproducers
Bibliography
Data-Acquisition Systems for Personal Computers
Essential Features of Data-Acquisition Boards
The DASYLAB Data-Acquisition and -Processing Software
The DASYLAB Functional Modules
List and Brief Description of the Functional Modules
DASYLAB Simulation Example Number One
Simulating Sensor Signals and Recording Them versus Time
Stopping an Experiment at a Selected Time
Chart Recorder Options
Producing Tables or Lists
Analog and Digital Meters
Some Simple Data-Processing Operations
Integration and Differentiation
DASYLAB Simulation Example Number Two
Running the Demonstration
DASYLAB Simulation Example Number Three
Running the Demonstration
A Simple Real-World Experiment Using DASYLAB
Measurement Systems Applied to Micro- and Nanotechnology
Microscale Sensors
Micro-Motion-Positioning Systems
Particle Instruments and Clean-Room Technology
Partial-Pressure Measurements in Vacuum Processes
Magnetic Levitation Systems for Wafer Conveyors
Scanning-Probe Microscopes
Bibliography
Index