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Political Parties

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ISBN-10: 0029212502

ISBN-13: 9780029212509

Edition: 1966

Authors: Robert Michels, Seymour Martin Lipset, Robert Michels

List price: $24.95
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In this book Michels analyzes the tendencies that oppose the realization of democracy, and claims that these tendencies can be classified in three ways: dependence upon the nature of the individual; dependence upon the nature of the political structure; and dependence upon the nature of organization. This edition, described by Morris Janowitz as a "classic of modern social science" and by Melvin Tumin as "the beginning of a tradition", offers a landmark study in political science. Following its original publication in 1910, the study and analysis of political parties was established as a new branch of science. Political Parties continues to be a foundation work in the literature and is a…    
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Book details

List price: $24.95
Copyright year: 1966
Publisher: Free Press
Publication date: 4/1/1966
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 380
Size: 5.00" wide x 8.00" long x 1.10" tall
Weight: 0.946
Language: English

Robert Michels was a German sociologist who spent the last 10 years of his life in Italy. In the English-speaking world, he is most famous for his book "Political Parties" (1911), in which he formulated the problem of the oligarchic tendencies of organizations. "He who says organization," he asserted, "says oligarchy." But political parties, he believed, are less oligarchic than single-purpose organizations concerned with specific reforms or with technical problems. An important study of the International Typographical Union, "Union Democracy" by Seymour M. Lipset, Martin A. Trow, and James S. Coleman (1956), has been said by some scholars to challenge many of Michels's findings about…    

Author's Preface
Democratic Aristocracy and Aristocratic Democracy
The Ethical Embellishment of Social Struggles
Leadership in Democratic Organizations
Technical and Administrative Causes of Leadership
Introductory - The Need for Organization
Mechanical and Technical Impossibility of Direct Government by the Masses
The Modern Democratic Party as a Fighting Party, Dominated by Militarist Ideas and Methods
Psychological Causes of Leadership
The Establishment of a Customary Right to the Office of Delegate
The Need for Leadership felt by the Mass
The Political Gratitude of the Masses
The Cult of Veneration Among the Masses
Accessory Qualities Requisite to Leadership
Accessory Peculiarities of the Masses
Intellectual Factors
Superiority of the Professional Leaders in Respect to Culture, and Their Indispensability; the Formal and Real Incompetence of the Mass
Autocratic Tendencies of Leaders
The Stability of Leadership
The Financial Power of the Leaders and of the Party
The Leaders and the Press
The Position of the Leaders in Relation to the Masses in Actual Practice
The Struggle Between the Leaders and the Masses
The Struggle Among the Leaders Themselves
Bureaucracy. Centralizing and Decentralizing Tendencies
The Exercise of Power and Its Psychological Reaction upon the Leaders
Psychological Metamorphosis of the Leaders
Bonapartist Ideology
Identification of the Party with the Leader ("Le Parti c'est Moi")
Social Analysis of Leadership
Introductory. The Class Struggle and Its Disintegrating Influence upon the Bourgeoisie
Analysis of the Bourgeois Elements in the Socialist Leadership
Social Changes Resulting from Organization
The Need for the Differentiation of the Working Class
Labor Leaders of Proletarian Origin
Intellectuals, and the Need for Them in the Working-Class Parties
Attempts to Restrict the Influence of the Leaders
The Referendum
The Postulate of Renunciation
Syndicalism as Prophylactic
Anarchism as Prophylactic
Synthesis: The Oligarchical Tendencies of Organization
The Conservative Basis of Organization
Democracy and the Iron Law of Oligarchy
Party-Life in War-Time
Final Considerations
Index of Names