Hitch Hiker's Guide to LCA An Orientation in Life Cycle Assessment Methodology and Applications

ISBN-10: 9144023642

ISBN-13: 9789144023649

Edition: 2004

Authors: Henrikke Baumann, Anne-Marie Tillman

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Description:

The environmental life cycle of a product consists of all the stages from raw material extraction through production and use to waste management. Life cycle assessment (LCA), then, is the assessment of the environmental impact of a product throughout its life cycle. The holistic perspective that LCA provides on the environmental performance of products has made it a central concept for both environmental management in industry and environmental policy-making in public government. This is a textbook on LCA for those who want to learn the practice of LCA, e.g. environmental engineers, environmental managers and eco-designers. The title paraphrases Douglas Adams' famous story 'The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy', in which the machine Deep Thought after seven and a half million years of computing come up with '42' as the answer to the 'great Question of Life, the Universe and Everything'. Expectations on LCA are often similar - simple answer to difficult environmental dilemmas, and the result often as incomprehensible as 42, unless one knows how to interpret LCA methodology and results. The book is organised in three parts covering LCA methodology, LCA applications and exercises on LCA. Two introductory chapters give a general overview of the LCA concept and its historical development. After that, LCA methodology is described in detail in six chapters. Different fields of LCA application are covered in five subsequent chapters. Since the aim of the book is to teach the execution of LCA, there are also a number of exercises. Smaller exercises train different aspects of LCA methodology and prepare for the larger ones, ten complete LCA exercise projects.
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Book details

Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Utbildningshuset/Studentlitteratur
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 543
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.782
Language: English

Foreword 9
List of abbreviations 13
Part 1
Introduction to LCA
1 LCA in a nutshell 19
1.1 What is LCA? 19
1.2 LCA methodology in short 23
1.3 LCA and environmental systems analysis 31
1.4 Pay attention to... 33
1.5 Summary and further reading 41
2 Development of the LCA concept 43
2.1 Early LCA activities (1969-1989) 44
2.2 "... one of the most important tools for the 1990s ..." 52
2.3 LCA in the environmental tool box 60
2.4 Summary and further reading 68
Part 2
LCA methodology
3 Goal and scope definition 73
3.1 Goal and context of the study 74
3.2 Scope and modelling requirements 75
3.3 Procedural aspects and planning of an LCA study 93
3.4 Summary and further reading 95
Inventory analysis 97
4.1 Construction of a flowchart 98
4.2 Data collection 99
4.3 Calculation procedure 107
4.4 More about allocation 110
4.5 Accounting for recycling rate 119
4.6 Accounting for energy use in LCI 123
4.7 Summary and further reading 126
5 Life cycle impact assessment 129
5.1 What is an environmental impact? 131
5.2 The different phases of life cycle impact assessment 133
5.3 Characterisation methods 144
5.4 Ready-made LCIA methods 159
5.5 Comparison of LCIA methods 169
5.6 Summary and further reading 172
6 Interpretation and presentation of results 175
6.1 Quantitative results with varying level of detail 178
6.2 Qualitative results 185
6.3 Different purposes - different result presentations 189
6.4 Testing the robustness of the results 196
6.5 Summary and further reading 202
7 Critical review of LCA 203
7.1 When are LCAs reviewed critically? 204
7.2 With respect to what are LCAs reviewed? 206
7.3 How are critical reviews conducted? 210
7.4 Summary and further reading 211
8 LCA data management 213
8.1 LCA software packages 214
8.2 LCA databases 218
8.3 Documentation of LCA data according to ISO/TS 14048 223
8.4 Summary and further reading 229
Part 3
LCA applications
9 LCA and product development 235
9.1 Product development and environmental considerations 236
9.2 LCA and life cycle based approaches for ecodesign 242
9.3 Ecodesign and LCA in product development in practice 251
9.4 Summary and further reading 253
10 Green marketing and LCA 255
10.1 What is green marketing? 256
10.2 Standardised environmental market communication 260
10.3 Summary and further reading 274
11 LCA for production processes 277
11.1 LCA for the process industry 278
11.2 LCA for manufacturing processes 288
11.3 Transportation and logistics 296
11.4 Summary and further reading 299
12 LCA and waste management 301
12.1 LCA of waste management 302
12.2 Waste treatment in LCA 310
12.3 Summary and further readings 312
13 Organising LCA activities in a company 313
13.1 An LCA project in a process industry 314
13.2 An LCA project in a manufacturing industry 321
13.3 An LCA project in a service/manufacturing industry 327
13.4 An LCA project in a consumer goods industry 329
13.5 Organising LCA projects 332
13.6 Implementing LCA 337
13.7 Summary and further reading 343
14 Bibliography 345
Exercises 371
A Functional units 373
B Goal and scope definition 375
C A beginner's introduction to LCA 385
D Data collection and documentation 393
E Allocation 397
F Impact assessment: classification 399
G Critical review 401
H General introduction to LCA projects 403
H1 Roofing. Comparison of concrete tiles with clay tiles 404
H2 Clay tiles. Comparison of single use with reuse 409
H3 Concrete tiles. Comparison of single use with reuse 411
H4 Polyethylene. Comparison of incineration and recycling 415
H5 Polyethylene. Comparison of landfilling and recycling 423
H6 Glass. Comparison of single use with material recycling 432
H7 Glass. Comparison of single use with refilling 436
H8 Linoleum. Choice of linseed oil supplier 441
H9 Linoleum. Choice of waste management 447
H10 Apples. Development of type III eco-labelling 453
Solutions to some exercises 471
A Problem solution 473
C Problem solution 475
E Problem solution 481
Appendices 483
Appendix 1 General inventory data 485
Appendix 2 Characterisation indicators 509
Appendix 3 Weighting indices 517
Glossary 529
Index 535
Table of Contents provided by Swedish - BTJ. All Rights Reserved.
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