Teaching Conversation to Children with Autism Scripts and Script Fading

ISBN-10: 1890627321

ISBN-13: 9781890627324

Edition: 2005

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Description:

Scripting is a teaching method designed to help children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), who are nonverbal or who are verbal but don?t initiate conversation, to initiate conversation. The authors draw on years of experience using scripts in their own clinic, and include many case studies that show how scripts have worked. The book defines scripts as ?an audiotape or written word, phrase, or sentence that enables young people with autism to use speech to start and continue conversations.? At first a child is taught to play the recording of a word for an adult, and then get a reaction from the adult. (e.g., if he plays the script ?juice, ? the adult will give him a sip of juice or if he plays the script ?ball, ? the adult will play ball with him). Later on, the child is taught to play the script and then say the word himself (and get the reward from the adult). As the child becomes better at talking, scripts are lengthened to become phrases --?want juice? or ?play ball? --- and then sentences. And once the child can read, scripts are written instead of recorded. As the child masters sets of scripts, the adult begins to diminish (?fade?) the prompts. If the script was recorded, words are gradually deleted from the recording. (e.g., if the script started out saying, ?Where is mom?? they will re-record it so it just says ?Where is ??and then ?Where ---?? At this point, the child should fill in the blanks.
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Book details

List price: $17.95
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Woodbine House
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 160
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.25" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.462
Language: English

Sandra L. Harris is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Clarkson University. Dr. Harris teaching interests include process control, thermodynamics, and biochemical engineering. Her research interests are centered on periodic processing, control of systems having varying dead times, and generation of input signals for efficient process identification.

Preface
About This Book
Why Doesn't He Talk to Us?
What Are Scripts? What Is Script Fading?
Scripts, Script Fading, and Activity Schedules
Building Prerequisite Skills: Scripts for Children Who Do Not Yet Talk
Why Use Scripts with Nonverbal Children?
Making Social Interaction Fun
Pairing Pictures, Words, and Objects or Activities
Creating Helpful Language Environments
Not All Activities Are Social
Preparing to Teach
Observe Preferences
Select Scripts
Record the Scripts
Enlist the Help of Two Adults
Construct an Activity Schedule
Teaching Children to Use Scripts: Prompters and Conversation Partners
How to Be an Effective Prompter
Fading Prompts
How to Be a Good Conversation Partner
Dealing with Errors
Measuring Progress
What's Next?
Scripts for Children Who Say Words or Phrases
Initiating Conversation with a Word or Phrase
An Additional Measure of Progress
What If a Child Doesn't Say the Scripts?
Fading Audiotaped Scripts
Measuring Scripted and Unscripted Interaction
New Definitions of Interaction
Observing, Scoring, and Graphing Scripted and Unscripted Interaction
The Importance of Two Observers
More Scripts and More Interaction Opportunities
Talking about Reward Activities
Talking about Play Activities
Talking about Home-Living Activities
Extending Conversation
When Are Scripts Faded?
Scripts for Beginning Readers
Fading Pictures and Audiotapes
Talk Books
What to Do When Conversation Fails
Scripts for More Accomplished Readers
Scripts about Past and Future Activities
Photo Albums and Scrapbooks
Using the Telephone
More about Fading Written Scripts
Don't Forget Rewards!
Measuring More Complex Conversation
Defining Interaction
Types of Interaction
Using Scripts to Promote Peer Interaction
Peer Tutoring
Interaction with Siblings
Peer Interaction in Groups
Teaching Young People to Create Their Own Scripts
Using Topic Lists
Writing Their Own Scripts
Scripts for Nonreaders and People with Severe Disabilities
Silent Partners
Pictures as Cues for Conversation
Making It Work
Selecting Scripts
Modeling Conversation
Fading Prompts
Programming Generalized Interaction Skills
Solving Problems
Audio Card Readers
Data Sheet Used to Measure the Progress of a Child Who Is Not-Yet-Verbal
Daily Individual Progress Report Chart for a Child Who Is Not-Yet-Verbal
Data Sheet Used to Measure the Progress of a Child Who Says Words or Phrases
Daily Individual Progress Report Chart for a Child Who Says Words or Phrases
Data Sheet for Scoring Scripted and Unscripted Interaction
Data Sheet for a Child Who Uses Sentences
Button-Activated Voice Recorders
Hand Counter
Materials Needed for Script-Fading Programs
References
Glossary
Index
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