Answers to Essential Questions about Standards, Assessments, Grading, and Reporting

ISBN-10: 1452235244

ISBN-13: 9781452235240

Edition: 2013

Authors: Lee Ann Jung, Thomas R. Guskey

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How do assessments for learning differ from assessments of learning? What is the purpose of grading? After nearly two decades of immersion in standards-based curriculua and instruction, our nation's educators are often still confounded by the (admittedly complex) landscape of standards, assessment, and reporting. Lead author Tom Guskey has a remarkable knack for bringing clarity to even the most complex of concepts. In this brief, practical guide, he and co-author Lee Ann Jung address the frequently-asked questions that almost inevitably surface in his work with school districts, state DOEs, and international agencies. The authors respond to these questions in short, simple, jargon-free, reader-friendly responses that will make sense to all levels of readers. As schools proceed with the implementation of the Common Core curriculum and the use of corresponding assessments, this invaluable guide will help clarify the meaning of these critical issues for key stakeholders and greatly facilitate communication among and between group members.
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Book details

List price: $27.95
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Corwin Press
Publication date: 11/21/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 176
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.638
Language: English

LEE ANN JUNG, PhD, is associate professor of special education at the University of Kentucky. Dr. Jung is a graduate of Auburn University and has worked in the field of special education since 1994 as a teacher, administrator, consultant, and researcher. She is a national presenter on topics of family involvement, inclusion, IEP/IFSP development, and grading and reporting progress of exceptional learners. She has authored more than 30 journal articles and book chapters and has received in excess of 3 million dollars in funding to support personnel preparation and research. She is an editorial board member for three special education journals and has served as guest editor for Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Dr. Jung was named �Outstanding Junior Faculty Researcher� at the University of Kentucky in 2002. She serves on the governor-appointed council that advises Kentucky�s Cabinet for Health and Family Services on matters of providing special education services to young children. She can be reached at

Thomas R. Guskey, Ph.D., is Professor of Educational Psychology in the College of Education at the University of Kentucky. A graduate of the University of Chicago, he began his career in education as a middle school teacher, served as an administrator in Chicago Public Schools, and was the first Director of the Center for the Improvement of Teaching and Learning, a national educational research center. He is the author/editor of 18 books and over 200 articles published in prominent research journals as well as Educational Leadership, Kappan, and School Administrator. Dr. Guskey served on the Policy Research Team of the National Commission on Teaching & America's Future, on the Task Force to develop the National Standards for Staff Development, and recently was named a Fellow in the American Educational Research Association, which also honored him in 2006 for his outstanding contribution relating research to practice. His most recent books include Developing Standards-Based Report Cards (2010), Practical Solutions for Serious Problems in Standards-Based Grading (Ed.) (2009), The Principal as Assessment Leader (Ed.) (2009), The Teacher as Assessment Leader (Ed.) (2009), and Benjamin S. Bloom: Portraits of an Educator (Ed.) (2006).

About the Authors
Preface: The Nature of Essential Questions
What are Standards?
Are Standards a New Idea in Education?
Why Do Some People Oppose Standards?
What is Assessment?
What is the Difference Between Assessments and Tests?
What is Formative Assessment?
Why are Formative Assessments Important?
What are Common Formative Assessments?
What is Summative Assessment?
What is High-Stakes Assessment?
What are Instructionally Sensitive and Instructionally Insensitive Assessments?
How Do Assessments for Learning Differ From Assessments of Learning?
Do Formative Assessments Improve Student Learning?
What are Grades?
What is the Purpose of Grading?
Are Grades Essential to Teaching and Learning?
Why are the First Grades Assigned so Important?
Do Low Grades Prompt Students to Try Harder?
Why is Setting Percentage Cut-Offs for Grades an Arbitrary Process?
What is Wrong with Grading on the Curve?
What Criteria Do Teachers Use in Assigning Grades?
What is Standards-Based Grading and Reporting?
Why Do Some Parents Have Concerns About Standards-Based Grading and Reporting?
If Schools Implement Standards-Based Grading, Will the Grades Assigned to Students Likely Go Up or Down?
What is the Most Important First Step in Implementing Standards-Based Grading?
What is the Best Way to Inform Parents About Moving to Standards-Based Grading?
What is the Best Way to Encourage Parents to Make Comments on the Report Card?
Will Standards-Based Grading Improve Student Learning?
Grading and Reporting for Exceptional and Struggling Learners
Who are Exceptional and Struggling Learners?
How Do We Assign Grades to Exceptional and Struggling Learners Who Require Modifications?
What is the Difference Between Accommodations and Modifications?
How Do We Legally Report Grades for Exceptional and Struggling Learners on Report Cards and Transcripts?
Do High School Students Requiring Modifications Receive Course Credit Toward a Diploma? Do Modifications Make a Student Ineligible for Extracurricular Activities, Such as Interscholastic Athletics?
Summary and Conclusions
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