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Crime Scene Investigation, Criminalistics, and the Law

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ISBN-10: 1401859291

ISBN-13: 9781401859299

Edition: 2007

Authors: Thomas Buckles

List price: $149.95
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Crime Scene Investigation: Criminalistics, and the Law is a new title that is the first to include not only crime scene investigation and criminalistics, but also the laws that govern them. It focuses on how the crime scene should be investigated, searched, and processed for evidence, but also includes an emphasis on the legal admissibility of these procedures. This book discusses the forensic value of physical evidence and the role of forensic science and criminalistics in evaluating this evidence and presenting it in court. It?s heavy on informative content that is reinforced by the many valuable and illustrative photographs, exhibits, and actual cases. Timely and familiar cases are used…    
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Book details

List price: $149.95
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Delmar Cengage Learning
Publication date: 7/27/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 360
Size: 8.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.452
Language: English

John Halal began his career in the beauty industry as a hairstylist about 40 years ago. Halal owned and operated beauty salons for 34 years. Halal is licensed cosmetology instructor and the founder and president of Honors Beauty College, Inc. since 1992.

Preface
Introduction to Crime Scene Investigation, Criminalistics, and the Law
Introduction: "Every Contact Leaves a Trace."
What is a Crime?
Felony and Misdemeanor
Corpus Delicti
What is Criminalistics?
Criminalistics Merges Science with Investigation
Evaluating Physical Evidence by Matchable Characteristics
Class versus Individual Characteristics
Practice Tip: Job Opportunities in Forensic Science
Why is Law Important to Crime Scene Investigation?
What is an Investigation?
What is a Crime Scene Investigation?
Crime Scene Investigation and Deductive Reasoning
Investigation may be Inculpatory and Exculpatory
Evidence is Information
Effect of Time on Information
What Is a Crime Scene?
Who Are Crime Scene Investigators?
Law Enforcement Officers and Investigators
Patrol Officer - First Responder
Crime Lab Specialists
Medico-Legal and Arson Investigators
Investigators from Other Agencies
Paralegals and Legal Investigators
Crime Lab Job Descriptions
District Attorney's Investigator
Public Defender Paralegal/Investigator
Practice Tip: Job Opportunities as Crime Scene Investigator
What Do Crime Scene Investigators Look For?
What Type of Evidence are Investigators Looking for at Crime Scene?
Sources of Physical Evidence
What Is Crime Scene Evidence Used For?
Practice Tip: Think Ahead!
How Do We Know What Evidence to Look for at the Crime Scene?
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Investigating the Crime Scene: Initial Response and Planning
Introduction
Preliminary Investigation Techniques
Preliminary Investigation
Initial Response
Initial Response
Practice Tip: Crime Scene Response Guidelines
Securing the Crime Scene
Securing the Crime Scene
Establishing a Perimeter
Human Skull Found in Woods
Establishing Perimeter Boundary at Crime Scene
Practice Tip: Electronic Crime Scene Investigation
Ensuring Scene Safety
Ensuring Safety at Crime Scene
Contamination Control
Emergency Care
Emergency Care
Initial Documentation
Initial Documentation
Crime Scene Assessment
Crime Scene Assessment
Practice Tip: Use Caution in Walk-Through
Planning the Crime Scene Investigation
Planning Steps for a Methodical Process
Practice Tip: Good Guide for Planning a Crime Scene Investigation
Practice Tip: Crime Scene Investigation - A Guide for Law Enforcement
Crime Scene Debriefing
Crime Scene Debriefing
Final Documentation of Crime Scene
Final Documentation of Crime Scene
Final Survey Before Release of Crime Scene
Final Survey of Crime Scene
Legal Challenges
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using The Internet
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Investigating the Crime Scene: Documenting the Scene
Introduction
Documenting the Crime Scene
Golden Rule of Hans Gross
Investigative Notes And Reports
Investigative Notes
Investigative Reports
Legal Requirements
Crime Scene Photography
Uses of Crime Scene Photography
Practice Tip: Crime Scene Photography Resources
Procedure in Crime Scene Photography
Problems to Overcome with Crime Scene Photography
Photographing the Crime Scene
Legal Challenges to Crime Scene Photographs
Evidentiary Rule Excluding Prejudicial Evidence
Lewis v. Mississippi
Balancing Test Used in Legal Challenges
Crime Scene Sketches
Sketching Methods
Rectangular Coordinate Sketching Method
Steps in Sketching Crime Scene
Triangulation Sketching Method
Cross-Projection Sketch
Crime Scene Sketch
Legal Admissibility of Sketches
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Investigating the Crime Scene: Processing the Scene and Collecting Evidence
Introduction
Processing the Crime Scene
Crime Scene Searches
Planning the Search
Search Patterns
Lane or Strip Search Pattern
Grid Search Pattern
Spiral Search Pattern
Crime Scene Search Checklist
Legal Challenges to Crime Scene Searches
What Are We Looking for in Searching a Crime Scene?
What Is Physical Evidence Used For?
Where Do We Find Physical Evidence?
Sources of Physical Evidence
Use of Criminalistics in Collecting Physical Evidence
Practice Tip: Light Source Safety
Collecting Physical Evidence
Documenting Collected Evidence
Proper Handling of Evidence
Practice Tip: Handle with Care
Be Sure to Collect Proper Samples
Evidence Collection Kit
Prioritize Collection of Evidence
What Evidence Should be Collected at Crime Scene?
How to Collect Physical Evidence
To Avoid Contamination of Evidence
Checklist for Collecting Evidence
Marking Physical Evidence
Packaging Evidence
Practice Tip: Evidence Collection Guidelines
Evidence Submission Form
Final Survey and Release of Processed Scene
Chain of Custody
Legal Challenges
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Investigative Considerations and Special Crime Scenes
Introduction
Methodical Investigative Process
5 Ws & H
M.O.M.
MO-Modus Operandi
Signature
Staging
Special Crime Scenes
Burglary
Robbery
Suspect Touching Counter at Robbery Scene
Arson
Alligatoring Effect in Arson Fire
Crimes Against Children
Sexual Assault
Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Kit
Death Investigation
Death by Firearm
Special Investigative Considerations: Photographing a Dead Body
Practice Tip: Death Scene Investigation
Solvability Factors
Crime Scene Reconstruction
Steps in Crime Scene Reconstruction
Practice Tip: Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction
Legal Challenges
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Sources of Laws Governing Crime Scene Investigations
Introduction
Sources of Laws Governing Crime Scene Investigations
Constitution
Case Law
Statutory Law
Practice Tip: Establishing a Prima Facie Case
Non-Testimonial Identification Order
Practice Tip: Finding Rules of Criminal Procedure
Evidence Law
How Evidence Law Influences Crime Scene Investigative Process
Practice Tip: Researching Evidence Laws on the Internet
Practice Tip: Finding State Evidence Codes
Practice Tip: Finding Federal Rules of Evidence
Types of Evidence
Types of Evidence
Forms Of Evidence
Forms of Evidence
Relevancy
Types and Forms of Evidence
Exclusion of Relevant Evidence on Grounds of Prejudice, Confusion, or Waste of Time
Court Order in Motion to Admit Crime Scene Photos
What is Probative Value of Evidence?
Exculpatory Evidence
Evidence versus Proof
Burden of Proof
Standards or Degrees of Certainty in Burdens of Proof
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Critical Thinking Questions 6.1
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Definitions of Crimes
Web Sites
Endnotes
Laws of Crime Scene Searches
Introduction
Sources of Laws Governing Crime Scene Searches
Rules of Criminal Procedure
Practice Tip: Finding Search & Seizure Laws
Case Law
Constitution
Fourth Amendment and Crime Scene Searches
Fourth Amendment
Fourth Amendment Search Warrant Requirement
Requirements for Search Warrant
Can Police Search a Crime Scene Without a Warrant?
Is There a Crime Scene Exception to Search Warrant Requirement?
Mincey v. Arizona
Practice Tip: Research Supreme Court Cases Online
Thompson v. Louisiana
Flippo v. West Virginia
Practice Tip: Researching State and Federal Laws
Exceptions to Search Warrant Requirement
Exigency
Michigan v. Tyler
Smock v. Indiana
Determining Whether Exigency Exists
Plain View Doctrine
People v. Martin
Checklist for Plain View
Consent
Scaggs v. Texas
Checklist for Consent
Legal Challenges to Crime Scene Searches
Exclusionary Rule
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Crime Lab and Criminalistics
Introduction
From Crime Scene to Crime Lab
Crime Lab
History of Crime Labs
Early History of Crime Labs
Modern Crime Labs
Services Provided by Crime Laboratories
Crime Scene Processing
Forensic Analysis and Testing
Blood Examination Request Letter
Census of 50 Largest Publicly Funded Crime Labs
Practice Tip: Research Crime Labs and Forensic Science
Criminalistics
History of Criminalistics
Criminalist
What Criminalists Do
Practice Tip: For More Info on Criminalists
Why Criminalistics Is Important
CSI Effect
Basis of Criminalistics
Concept of Identity
Set Theory
Standards of Comparison
Comparing Matchable Characteristics
Matchable Characteristics
Class Versus Individual Characteristics
Legal Challenges
Legal Challenges to Crime Lab and Lab Personnel
Checklist for Challenging Crime Lab or Lab Personnel
Legal Challenges to Forensic Equipment and Procedure
Practice Tip: Legal Challenges to Crime Lab and Forensic Evidence
Checklist for Challenging Forensic Equipment and Procedure
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
DNA Comparison
Web Sites
Endnotes
Forensic Value of Physical Evidence
Introduction
Fingerprints
Fingerprint Patterns
Fingerprint Characteristics
Arch Pattern
Loop Pattern
Whorl Pattern
Fingerprint Comparison
Core and Delta
Ridge Characteristics
Footprints and Palmprints
Comparing Matchable Characteristics
Lip, Ears, and Voiceprints
Bitemarks
Shoe Impressions
Practice Tip: Do Not Step Into the Shoes...
Shoe Print found at Crime Scene
Tire Impressions
Tire Impression found at Crime Scene
Lab Report Results
Tools and Toolmarks
Striated Toolmark
Comparison of Striation Marks
Impressed Toolmarks
Purpose of Tool and Toolmark Examination
Weapons and Ballistics
Comparison of Marks on Cartridge Cases
Knives and Knife Wounds
Ballistics Comparison
Detecting Discharge of Weapons
Explosives and Explosive Residue
Soil
Blood and Body Fluids
Bloodstain Patterns
Bloodstain Patterns
Information Needed on Crime Scene Bloodstains
Toxicology and Drugs
Hair
Fibers
Glass
Radial and Concentric Glass Fractures
DNA
Forensic Value of DNA
Practice Tip: Want More Info On DNA?
Questioned Documents and Handwriting Analysis
Computers and Electronic Data
Legal Challenges
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Fingerprint Comparisons
Web Sites
Endnotes
Forensic Evidence and Testing
Introduction: From Crime Lab to Courtroom
Crime Scene Review
What Is Forensic Evidence and Testing?
Practice Tip: Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence
Importance of Forensic Evidence and Testing
Admissibility Governed by Evidence Law
Expert Witnesses
Tests Used by Courts to Determine Admissibility
Examples of Rules for Admitting Expert Testimony on Forensic Evidence and Scientific Testing
General Acceptance Test
Guideline for Admitting Forensic Expert's Opinion under Frye General Acceptance Test
Practice Tip: Does Your State Use the Frye Test?
Reliability Test
Checklist for Admitting Forensic Expert's Opinion under Reliability Test
People v. Clevenger
Daubert Standard
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Effect Of Daubert Decision
Examples of Post-Daubert Rules for Scientific Testing Testimony by Experts
Scientific Testing Checklist
Forensic Experts Who Are Not Scientists
Louisiana v. Jones
Checklist for Admitting Forensic Expert's Opinion under Daubert Test and Federal Rule of Evidence 702
Factors for Determining "Scientific Knowledge" under the Daubert Test
Judge as Gatekeeper
Abuse of Discretion
Legal and Evidentiary Challenges
Factors for Determining Legal Challenges
Under the Frye "General Acceptance" Test
Under the "Reliability Test"
Under Federal Rule of Evidence 702
Under Daubert Standards
Practice Tip: Researching Evidence Laws on the Internet
Practice Tip: Finding State Evidence Codes
Practice Tip: Finding Federal Rules of Evidence
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Admissibility of Forensic Evidence and Testing
Introduction
Crime Scene Review
Admissibility of Forensic Evidence and Testing
Practice Tip: Find Out More about Legal Challenges to Fingerprints
Other Forensic Evidence and Testing
Examples of Cases Dealing with Admissibility of Forensic Evidence
People v. Wright
McGowen. v. Mississippi
Illinois v. Kaczmarek
Commonwealth v. Glyman
New and Novel Forensic Evidence and Testing
Reese v. State of Texas
FBI Checklist for Determining Legal Challenges to DNA
Practice Tip: Research DNA Testing and Standards for Crime Labs
State of Louisiana v. Gary Morrison
Legal Challenges Based on Court Standards
Factors to Consider in Admitting Forensic Evidence
Legal Challenges of Forensic Testing and Equipment
Practice Tip: Legal Challenges to Forensic Evidence
Legal Challenges to Reliability
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Presenting Crime Scene Evidence in Court
Introduction
Criminal Prosecution
Preliminary Hearing
Pre-Trial Motion Hearings
Criminal Trial
Example of Courtroom Layout
Role of Witnesses at Trial
Examples of Evidence Rules Governing Testimony by Witnesses
Example of Testimony Lacking Personal Knowledge
Preparing to Testify
Accuracy in Documentation
Demeanor
Practice Tip: Testifying in Court
Preparing Evidence and Exhibits for Trial
Organizing and Managing Crime Scene Evidence Exhibits
Presenting Evidence at Trial
Laying a Foundation
Steps for Laying a Foundation
Identification and Authentication
Requirement of Identification or Authentication
Elements Required for Identification
Elements Required for Authentication
Effect of Identification and Authentication Requirement
Chain of Custody
Knight v. State of Alabama
Practice Tip: United States Supreme Court Decisions
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Tip: Finding State Court Sites
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Future of Crime Scene Investigation, Criminalistics, and the Law
Introduction
Future Is Now: Recent Innovations in Crime Scene Investigation
Future of Crime Scene Investigation and Criminalistics
Improving Existing Forensic Tools and Technologies
Miniaturization
Automation
Teleforensics
Standardization
Recommendations for Crime Labs
Future of Laws Governing Crime Scene Investigations
Technology and Law
People v. Hood
Scientific Evidence
United States v. Plaza
Trends In Crime Scene Search Laws
CSI Effect
Practice Tip: Resource for Future Directions in Crime Scene Investigation
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Forensic Research Using the Internet
Practice Skills
Web Sites
Endnotes
Glossary
Index