Understanding Creativity

ISBN-10: 0910707596

ISBN-13: 9780910707596

Edition: 2004

Authors: Jane Piirto

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Book details

List price: $32.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Great Potential Press, Inc.
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 548
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.826
Language: English

Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Prefacep. xix
Definitions and Processes of Creativityp. 1
Making Sense of Creativityp. 5
The Term "Creativity"p. 6
Psychological, Psychoanalytic, Philosophic, and Religious Overtonesp. 8
Creativity and Psychologyp. 9
Psychometric Approachesp. 9
Developmental Psychologyp. 13
Social Psychologyp. 17
Cognitive Psychologyp. 19
Educational Psychologyp. 23
Humanistic Psychologyp. 24
Positive Psychologyp. 26
Psychoanalysis, Psychiatry, and Creativityp. 26
Creativity and Business and Technologyp. 28
Philosophy and Creativity: Why Are We So Interested in Creativity, Anyway?p. 28
Reasons of Quantityp. 29
Quality as Creativityp. 30
Creativity and Nationalismp. 31
Creativity and Equityp. 31
Creativity as Human Freedomp. 32
Can a Person Be Creative Without a Product?p. 33
Precocity as Predictivep. 33
Creativity of the Moment and for the Agesp. 34
Creativity Can Take Place Without Masteryp. 35
The Existence and Development of Talentp. 36
Creativity Is Naturalp. 37
Summaryp. 38
The Creative Processp. 41
Current Psychological Theories of the Creative Processp. 41
Cognitive Psychology: Selectionp. 42
Industrial Psychology: The CPS Modelp. 42
Psychoanalytic Theory: Janusian and Homospatialp. 42
Social Psychological Theories: The Power of Suggestion and Motivationp. 43
The Work of Brewster Ghiselinp. 45
Core Attitudes in the Creative Processp. 46
Core Attitude of Naivetep. 46
Core Attitude of Self-Disciplinep. 47
Core Attitude of Risk-Takingp. 47
Core Attitude of Group Trustp. 48
The Seven I'sp. 49
Inspirationp. 49
Imageryp. 60
Imaginationp. 60
Intuitionp. 62
Insightp. 63
Incubationp. 64
Improvisation and an Attitude of Playfulnessp. 65
Other Aspects of the Creative Processp. 67
The Need for Solitudep. 67
Creativity Ritualsp. 69
Meditationp. 69
Creativity as the Process of a Lifep. 71
Creativity and Madnessp. 75
Suicide Among Creatorsp. 76
Conclusionp. 78
Summaryp. 78
How To Enhance Creativityp. 81
Encouraging Creativity: Motivation and Schoolingp. 83
What Creative Writers Said about their Schoolingp. 84
Motivating Creative Behaviorp. 91
Strong Emotion as a Motivatorp. 91
Close Your Eyesp. 93
Escaping and Getting the Gigglesp. 95
Creativity as Spontaneous Adventuresp. 96
Creativity Is Not Permittedp. 97
Motivation for Creativityp. 97
Rewardsp. 98
Summaryp. 100
How Parents and Teachers Can Enhance Creativity in Childrenp. 101
Provide a Private Place for Creative Work to Be Donep. 101
Provide Materials: Musical Instruments, Sketchbooks, Fabric, Paper, Clayp. 103
Encourage and Display the Child's Creative Work, but Avoid Overly Evaluating Itp. 105
Do Your Own Creative Work, and Let the Child See You Doing Itp. 107
Set a Creative Tonep. 110
Value the Creative Work of Othersp. 112
Incorporate Creativity Values into Your Family Mythologyp. 113
Avoid Reinforcing Sex-Role Stereotypesp. 116
Provide Private Lessons and Special Classesp. 118
Use Hardship to Teach the Child Expression through Metaphorp. 121
Discipline and Practice Are Importantp. 124
Allow the Child to be "Odd"; Avoid Emphasizing Socialization at the Expense of Creative Expressionp. 126
Use Humor, and Get Creativity Trainingp. 129
Summaryp. 130
Personality and Intellectual Characteristics of Creative People In Various Domainsp. 133
The Piirto Pyramid of Talent Development Modelp. 135
The Pyramid (Piiramid) of Talent Developmentp. 138
The Genetic Aspectp. 138
The Emotional Aspect: Personality Attributesp. 138
The Cognitive Aspectp. 140
Talent in Domainsp. 141
Environmental "Suns"p. 142
Talent Multipotentiality: Feeling the Call, or the "Thorn"p. 144
Crystallizing Experiences and Catalystsp. 144
Support for the Pyramid Theoryp. 145
Summaryp. 146
Visual Artists and Architectsp. 147
The Genetic Aspect for Visual Artistsp. 148
The Emotional Aspect: Personalities of Visual Artistsp. 149
Androgynyp. 150
Pacifism and Androgynyp. 151
Tolerance for Ambiguity and Preference for Complexityp. 151
Naivetep. 152
Nonconformityp. 152
Intuitionp. 153
Ambition, Drivep. 154
Interests and Values of Visual Arts Studentsp. 155
Differences in Values Among Artists According to Specialtyp. 155
The Cognitive Aspect: Intelligence of Visual Artistsp. 156
Spatial Intelligencep. 156
Use of Tests to Assess Artistic Intelligence or Talentp. 157
Problem-findingp. 157
The Domain "Thorn" in Visual Artistsp. 158
Predictive Behaviors for Visual Arts Talentp. 158
Passion for the Domainp. 162
Sun of Home in Visual Artistsp. 163
Sun of School in Visual Artistsp. 165
Sun of Community and Culture in Visual Artistsp. 167
Community and Culture for Picassop. 168
Cross-Fertilization and Cross-Cultural Influences among Artistsp. 169
Cross-Cultural Differencesp. 170
Sun of Gender in Visual Artistsp. 170
Biographical Example of Judy Chicagop. 171
Foley's Study: Having a Supportive Husband Helpsp. 171
Biographical example of Lee Krasnerp. 173
Self-Promotionp. 174
Sun of Chance in Visual Artistsp. 174
Sun of Chancep. 174
Biographical Example of Georgia O'Keeffep. 176
Architectsp. 177
Genetic Aspect in Architectsp. 177
Emotional Aspect: Personalities of Architectsp. 178
Sun of Chance in Architectsp. 179
Biographical Example of the Saarinensp. 181
Biographical Example of Frank Lloyd Wrightp. 183
Summaryp. 187
Creative Writersp. 189
Directory of American Poets and Fiction Writersp. 189
The Genetic Aspect: Creative Writersp. 190
The Emotional Aspect: Personalities of Creative Writersp. 190
Ambition/Envyp. 191
Productivity/Self-Disciplinep. 191
Concern with Philosophical Mattersp. 192
The Aesthetics of It Allp. 192
Independence of Thought: Franknessp. 192
Psychopathologyp. 193
Depressionp. 195
A Sense of Humorp. 198
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Writersp. 199
The Cognitive Aspect: The Intelligence of Creative Writersp. 199
What Is Writing Talent?p. 200
The Domain "Thorn" in Creative Writersp. 202
Passion for the Domainp. 202
The Sun of Home in Creative Writersp. 203
Predictive Behavior of Extensive Early Readingp. 203
Predictive Behavior of Early Publication and Interest in Writingp. 203
Unconventional Families and Family Traumasp. 204
Depression and/or Acts such as Use of Alcohol, Drugs, or the Likep. 208
Being in an Occupation Different from their Parentsp. 210
The Sun of Community and Culture in Creative Writersp. 210
Feeling of Marginalization or Being an Outsider, and a Resulting Need to Have their Group's Story Toldp. 210
Late Career Recognitionp. 211
The Sun of School in Creative Writersp. 212
High Academic Achievement and Many Writing Awardsp. 212
Nurturing of Talents by Both Male and Female Teachers and Mentorsp. 213
Attendance at Prestigious Colleges, Majoring in English Literature but Without Attaining the Ph.D.p. 214
The Sun of Chance in Creative Writersp. 215
Residence in New York City at Some Point, Especially among the Most Prominentp. 215
The Accident of Place of Birth and of Ethnicityp. 216
The Sun of Gender in Creative Writersp. 216
Conflict with Combining Parenthood and Careers in Writingp. 217
Societal Gender Expectations Incongruent with their Essential Personalitiesp. 219
History of Divorce More Prevalent in Womenp. 220
Military Service More Prevalent in Menp. 221
Summaryp. 222
Creative Writers: Children with Extraordinary Writing Talentp. 225
Qualities Found in the Writing of Children Who Display Extraordinary Talentp. 228
Prose Talentp. 232
Predictive Behaviors in Children with Writing Talentp. 237
Famous Writers as Childrenp. 239
George Eliotp. 239
Stephen Cranep. 240
Jane Austenp. 240
Sinclair Lewisp. 241
Dylan Thomasp. 241
Thomas Wolfep. 241
Virginia Woolfp. 241
Tennessee Williamsp. 242
The Bronte Familyp. 242
Harry Crewsp. 243
John Updike and C. S. Lewisp. 243
Graham Greenep. 245
Summaryp. 247
Creative Scientists, Mathematicians, Inventors, and Entrepreneursp. 249
The Genetic Aspect in Scientists and Mathematiciansp. 249
The Emotional Aspect: Personalities of Scientists and Mathematiciansp. 250
Self-Discipline and Productivityp. 250
Motivation--Volitionp. 251
The Cognitive Aspect: Intelligence of Scientists and Mathematiciansp. 252
Cognitive Insight in Scientists and Mathematiciansp. 253
Associative Richnessp. 254
Cognitive Imageryp. 254
Threshold of Intelligence Needed to Do Science and Mathematicsp. 254
The Domain Thorn: Passion for Science and Mathematicsp. 256
Sun of Home in Scientists and Mathematiciansp. 257
The Sun of Home in Einstein and Tellerp. 257
Other Home Factorsp. 260
Sun of School in Scientists and Mathematiciansp. 260
Mentorsp. 262
Sun of Community and Culture in Scientists and Mathematiciansp. 263
The Influence of the Zeitgeistp. 263
Creativity in the Sciences as Different from that in the Artsp. 265
Outsidersp. 266
Sun of Gender in Scientists and Mathematiciansp. 267
Helson's Study of Creative Female Mathematiciansp. 267
Recent Studiesp. 269
Sun of Chance in Scientists and Mathematiciansp. 271
Serendipityp. 272
Biographical Example: Darwinp. 272
Inventorsp. 275
Emotional Aspect: Personalities of Inventorsp. 276
Cognitive Aspect: Inventorsp. 277
Patterns in the Lives of Inventorsp. 277
Entrepreneursp. 279
Emotional Aspect: Personalities of Entrepreneursp. 279
Sun of Gender in Entrepreneursp. 281
Sun of Community and Culture in Entrepreneursp. 281
Biographical Examples: J. Paul Getty, Warren Buffett, and Bill Gatesp. 282
Summaryp. 286
Musicians, Conductors, and Composersp. 289
The Genetic Aspect in Musiciansp. 291
The Emotional Aspect: Personality Attributes in Musiciansp. 292
Kemp's Studiesp. 292
Other Personality Studiesp. 293
Personality Attribute of Introversion/Shynessp. 294
Personalities of Conductorsp. 295
The Cognitive Aspect in Musiciansp. 296
Standardized Testsp. 297
IQ Intelligence of Musiciansp. 297
Talent in the Domain: The Thornp. 298
The Sun of Home in Musiciansp. 299
The Development of Expertisep. 299
The Sun of School in Musiciansp. 301
Choosing a Career in Musicp. 301
Life at Juilliardp. 304
The Sun of Community and Culture in Musiciansp. 305
Synergyp. 309
Statistical Output of Composersp. 309
Influence of Folk Culturep. 310
The Influence of African-Americans on Contemporary Musicp. 311
The Sun of Gender in Musiciansp. 314
Why Are There So Few Women Composers?p. 315
Biographical Example of Marilyn Shrudep. 316
Women Conductorsp. 321
Recent Researchp. 321
The Sun of Chance in Musiciansp. 321
The Creative Process in Music: Improvisation and Creativityp. 322
Summaryp. 328
Physical Performers: Actors, Dancers, and Athletesp. 329
Actorsp. 331
The Genetic Aspect: Actorsp. 332
The Emotional Aspect: Personalities of Actorsp. 332
Actors, Dancers, Athletes: Cognitive Aspectp. 333
Passion for the Domain: The Thornp. 335
Creative Process in Actingp. 335
The Sun of Home in Actorsp. 336
The Sun of School in Actorsp. 338
Predictive Behaviors for Actingp. 338
The Lookp. 340
Actors, Dancers, Athletes: The Sun of Community and Culturep. 343
Famous Ensembles in Theaterp. 344
The Sun of Gender in Actorsp. 346
The Sun of Chance in Actorsp. 347
Dancers and Athletesp. 348
The Aesthetics of Dancep. 349
Personality Attributes: The Emotional Aspect in Dancers and Athletesp. 351
Personality Studies of Dancersp. 351
Emotion and Personality in Athletesp. 352
Gifted and Toleratedp. 352
Mood Disordersp. 353
Positive Deviancep. 353
Mental Toughnessp. 353
The Domain Thorn: Dance and Athleticsp. 353
Sun of Home in Dancers and Athletesp. 355
Sun of School in Dancers and Athletesp. 356
Sun of Community and Culture in Dancers and Athletesp. 356
Sun of Gender in Dancers and Athletesp. 357
Androgyny in Athletesp. 357
Sun of Chance in Dancers and Athletesp. 358
Biographical Example of Suzanne Farrellp. 358
Biographical Example of Arnold Palmerp. 361
Physical Repercussions of Dance and Athleticsp. 363
Assessing the Creativity of Dancers, Athletes, and Actorsp. 365
Summaryp. 367
Creativity Assessment and Trainingp. 369
Creativity Assessmentp. 373
Testing for Creativityp. 379
Two Schools of Thoughtp. 379
Validityp. 381
Content/Construct Validityp. 381
Criterion or Predictive Validityp. 383
The Threshold Theoryp. 385
Concurrent Validity Of Creativity Testsp. 386
Reliabilityp. 387
Reliability in Administering Testsp. 388
Reliability in Scoringp. 389
Studies of Significant Resultsp. 391
A Flawed Study of Creative Adolescentsp. 392
The Normal Curve Assumptionp. 393
Using Personality Questionnaires in Creativity Assessmentp. 394
Overexcitabilities Questionnaire from the Dabrowski Theoryp. 394
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicatorp. 400
Creativity Checklistsp. 401
Promising Practices in Creativity Assessmentp. 402
Performance Assessmentp. 402
Talent Assessment Profilep. 404
Summaryp. 406
Creativity Trainingp. 407
Divergent Production Trainingp. 408
Creativity Training in College Coursesp. 410
Creativity Studies Projectp. 410
Creativity Training in the Schoolsp. 412
Creativity Training as Differentiation for the Talentedp. 417
Creativity Training Is Funp. 418
Teachers Get More Empathy with Creativity Trainingp. 418
Core Attitudes for Creativity Enhancementp. 420
Core Attitude of Self-Disciplinep. 420
Cultivating Risk-Takingp. 421
Cultivating Naivetep. 422
Group Trustp. 423
The Seven I'sp. 425
Imageryp. 425
Imaginationp. 426
Intuitionp. 426
Insightp. 428
Inspirationp. 430
Improvisationp. 433
Incubation: The Seventh "I"--Meditationp. 435
Other Organic, Less-Linear Creativity Exercisesp. 437
Creativity Ritualsp. 437
Cultivating Solitudep. 437
Creating Ideal Conditionsp. 438
Background Musicp. 438
Synesthesiap. 438
Seeingp. 439
Hearingp. 439
Smellingp. 439
Tastep. 439
Touchp. 440
Cultivation of Synchronicityp. 440
Exercisep. 441
Passion: Stepping into the River of the Domainp. 441
Flowp. 441
Conversation: A Salonp. 442
A Visitp. 442
Appreciate the Creative Work of Othersp. 443
Individual Creativity Projectp. 445
Summaryp. 446
Creativity Theoryp. 447
Focus Questionsp. 455
Referencesp. 465
Indexp. 503
About the Authorp. 521
List of Tables and Figures
Topics in the 1999 Encyclopedia of Creativity
Pyramid of Talent Development
Poets with Depression or Manic-Depression
Writers with Depression or Manic-Depression
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Preferences of Entrepreneurs and Managers
Overexcitability Questionnaire Responses of Talented Adolescents, along with their MBTI Type Preferences
An Exercise in Divergent Production
A Sampling of Creativity Training Programs
A Creativity Course
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.
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