"Salvatore R. Maddi obtained his doctorate in clinical psychology from Harvard University in 1960. He began developing the resilience and hardiness approach in 1975, and founded the Hardiness Institute in 1984. The author of nearly 100 papers, he is internationally recognized as a leader in psychology, and continues to win prestigious awards for his hardiness-based consulting and research work. An international survey in 1986 named him among the top 175 psychologists in the world.Deborah M. Khoshaba has been a professional psychologist for the past fifteen years and is director of Program Development and Training at the Hardiness Institute. Deborah teaches graduate students in psychology at Pepperdine University, and lectures for psychology undergraduates at the University of California, at Irvine. Her professional activities and published works include the areas of resilience, coping, and human potential.Organizations the authors have consulted to include Kawasaki, the University of Southern California, Illinois Bell Telephone, and Baxter HealthCare Corporation. They have appeared on CNN and in the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, and the Washington Post. Both authors live in Laguna Beach, California."