Diseases of Trees and Shrubs

ISBN-10: 0801443717

ISBN-13: 9780801443718

Edition: 2nd 2005 (Revised)

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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Publication date: 11/3/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 680
Size: 9.50" wide x 12.50" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 6.138
Language: English

Arrangement of subjects
Diseases caused by fungi
Diseases caused by Ascomycota, Plates 1-123
Foliar diseases, Plates 1-57, 94
Anthracnoses, Plates 40, 47-56
Shoot blights and twig diebacks, Plates 15, 30, 31, 37, 44-46, 50, 52, 55, 56, 58, 64, 72, 95
Stem galls, Plates 66, 73-75
Cankers and diebacks, Plates 50, 52, 55-65, 67-71, 76-107, 115, 116
Root diseases, Plates 108-114
Systemic diseases, Plates 46, 114-123
Diseases caused by Basidiomycota, Plates 124-174
Foliar diseases, Plates 124-145
Rusts, Plates 128-151
Trunk and limb rots, Plates 152-161
Canker-rots, Plates 155-158, 161
Root diseases, Plates 112, 127, 162-174
Diseases caused by Oomycota, Plates 175-182
Bacterial diseases, Plates 183-200
Negibacteria, Plates 183-193
Mollicutes, Plates 194-200
Viral diseases, Plates 201-213
Diseases caused by nematodes, Plates 214-216
Plant-pathogenic algae and plants, Plates 217-227
Declines, environmental damage, and unexplained growth abnormalities, Plates 228-253
Declines, Plates 228-231
Damage by toxic agents, Plates 232-241
Mineral deficiencies, Plates 242-243
Damage by drought, heat, freezing, excess water, Plates 244-249
Miscellaneous injuries and disorders, Plates 250-253
Restoration of sapwood and bark after injury or infection, Plates 254-257
Associations of normal woody plants with other organisms, Plates 258-261
About this book
How to use this book
Dedication and acknowledgments
Diseases caused by fungi
Overview of fungal diseases of woody plants
Diseases caused by Ascomycota, Plates 1-123
Foliar diseases, Plates 1-57, 94
Taphrina diseases: leaf curls and blisters, bladder plum, witches'-brooms, Plates 1, 2
Powdery mildews, Plates 3-6
Witches'-broom of hackberry and black witches'-broom of serviceberry, Plate 6
Dark fungi on plants: sooty molds, black mildews, and others, Plate 7
Spot anthracnoses and scabs caused by Elsinoe and Sphaceloma, Plate 8
Diseases caused by Mycosphaerella species and related anamorphs, Plates 9-17
Leaf spots of ash, walnut, citrus, rose, mountainash, sycamore, Plates 9, 10
Septoria diseases of poplar and other plants, Plate 11
Brown spot needle blight of pines, Plate 12
Dothistroma needle blight of pines, Plate 13
Stigmina leaf spot of palms, Plate 14
Mycosphaerella leaf spot of Yucca, Plate 14
Blights and leaf spots caused by fungi of the Cercospora complex, Plates 15, 16
"Cercospora" blights of Cupressaceae
Some "Cercospora" leaf spots
Linden leaf blotch, and leaf spots caused by Coniothyrium, Microsphaeropsis, Sonderhenia, and "Hendersonia," Plate 17
Ascochyta blight of lilac, Plate 18
Leaf spots and blotches caused by Guignardia and Phyllosticta, Plates 19, 20
Diseases caused by Guignardia species: leaf blotch of horse-chestnut and buckeye, leaf spot of Boston ivy, black rot of grapevine
Phyllosticta leaf spots and blotches of dogwood, hazelnut, witch-hazel, maples
Tubakia leaf spot of oaks and other trees and fly-speck leaf spot of Vaccinium, Plate 21
Needle blights and needle casts of conifers, Plates 12, 13, 15, 22-31
Lophodermium needle casts, Plate 22
Ploioderma needle casts of pines, Plate 23
Canavirgella and Davisomycella needle casts of pines, Plate 24
Elytroderma needle casts of pines, Plate 25
Lophodermella and Cyclaneusma needle casts of pines, Plate 26
Rhizosphaera and Isthmiella needle casts, Plate 27
Rhabdocline and Swiss needle casts of Douglas-fir, Plate 28
Meria needle blight of larch and Didymascella leaf blight of cedar, Plate 29
Snow blights, Plate 30
Brown felt blights, Plate 31
Tar spots, Plate 32
Ink spot leaf blight of aspen and poplar, Plate 33
Ovulinia petal blight of Rhododendron and Ciborinia flower blight of Camellia, Plate 34
Botrytis blight, Plate 35
Cristulariella leaf spots, Plate 36
Brown rot of stone fruits, Plate 37
Entomosporium leaf spot of Maloideae, Plate 38
Black spot of rose and Blumeriella leaf spot of cherry and plum, Plate 39
Marssonina spots and blights, Plate 40
Leaf spots and blights of aspen and poplar
Anthracnoses of birch and bittersweet
Alternaria blights and leaf spots, Plate 41
Shoot blights and twig diebacks, Plates 15, 30, 31, 37, 44-46, 50, 52, 55, 56, 58, 64, 72, 95
Scab diseases caused by Venturia species, Plates 42-45
Apple scab, Plate 42
Scabs of firethron, loquat, and toyon, Plate 43
Venturia leaf and shoot blights of aspen and poplar, Plate 44
Scab and black canker of willow and Venturia leaf blotch of maple, Plate 45
Bronze leaf disease of aspen and poplar and Linospora leaf blight of balsam poplars, Plate 46
Anthracnoses, Plates 40, 47-56
Anthracnose overview and black spot of elm, Plate 47
Ash anthracnose, Plate 48
Oak anthracnose, Plate 49
Sycamore anthracnose, Plate 50
Walnut anthracnose and Gnomonia leaf spots of hickory and pecan, Plate 51
Dogwood anthracnose, Plate 52
Anthracnoses of birch, filbert, and redbud, Plate 53
Anthracnoses and Didymosporina leaf spot of maples, Plate 54
Cankers and diebacks, Plates 50, 52, 55-65, 67-71, 76-107, 115, 116
Hornbeam anthracnose, Plate 55
Anthracnoses and diebacks caused by Glomerella and Colletotrichum, Plate 56
Butternut canker, Plate 57
Sirococcus blight of conifers, Plate 58
Ceratocystis cankers, see Plates 115, 116
Diseases caused by Botryosphaeria and allied fungi, Plates 59-67
Botryosphaeria cankers and diebacks, Plates 59-63
Cankers, dieback, and leaf blight caused by
B. dothidea and B. ribis, Plates 59, 60
Cankers and dieback caused by
B. stevensii and Diplodia quercina, Plate 60
B. quercuum and related fungi on oak, Plate 61
B. obtusa, Plate 62
B. rhodina, Plate 63
Diplodia (Sphaeropsis) blight of pines and other conifers, Plate 64
Sphaeropsis canker and dieback of elm, Plate 65
Sphaeropsis knot and Diplodia gall, Plate 66
Melanconis diebacks and sooty canker, Plate 67
Diseases caused by Diaporthe and Phomopsis species, Plates 68-74
Diaporthe and Phomopsis cankers and diebacks, Plates 68-72
Phomopsis canker of Russian-olive, Plate 68
Diseases of Rhododendron, Plate 68
Phomopsis cankers of almond and peach, Plate 69
Diseases associated with the Diaporthe eres complex, Plates 69-71
Phomopsis dieback of poplar, Plate 70
Diaporthe canker and dieback of sycamore, Plate 70
Phomopsis dieback of weeping fig, Plate 70
Other cankers and diebacks caused by Diaporthe and Phomopsis
Diaporthe and Phomopsis cankers of conifers, Plate 71
Phomopsis, Kabatina, and Sclerophoma blights of Juniper and other gymnosperms, Plate 72
Stem galls, Plates 66, 73-75
Phomopsis galls, Plate 73
Phomopsis canker of Gardenia and Nectriella gall of ornamental plats, Plate 74
Black knot of Prunus, Plate 75
Cankers and diebacks, continued
Cryptodiaporthe cankers, Plates 76, 77
Cryptodiaporthe canker of poplar, Plate 76
Cryptodiaporthe canker of willow, Plate 77
Golden canker of alternate-leaf dogwood, Plate 77
Eastern filbert blight, Plate 78
Chestnut blight, Plate 79
Chrysoporthe canker of Eucalyptus, Plate 80
Endothia canker, Plate 81
Leucostoma and Valsa cankers, Plates 82-86
Valsa cankers and diebacks of conifers, Plate 82
Leucostoma canker of spruce and other conifers, Plate 83
Leucostoma cankers of Prunus, Plate 84
Leucostoma and Valsa cankers of poplar and willow, Plate 85
Valsa cankers of maple, Plate 86
Cryptosporiopsis canker of red maple, Plate 86
Nectria cankers and diebacks, Plates 87-91
Coral-spot Nectria canker, Plate 87
Tubercularia canker and dieback, Plate 88
Thyronectria canker of honeylocust, Plate 89
Perennial Nectria canker, Plate 90
Beech bark disease, Plate 91
Fusarium cankers, Plates 92, 93
Cankers caused by Fusarium solani or F. lateritium, Plate 92
Pitch canker of pines, Plate 93
Pestalotiopsis spots, blights, and diebacks, Plate 94
Seiridium cankers of cypress, Plate 95
Cryptosphaeria canker of aspen, Plate 96
Eutypella canker of maples, Plate 97
Cankers and diebacks caused by Xylariaceous fungi, Plates 98-102
Entoleuca (Hypoxylon) canker of aspen, Plate 98
Biscogniauxia cankers and diebacks, Plates 99, 100
Biscogniauxia (Hypoxylon) diebacks of oaks, Plate 99
Blister canker, Plate 100
Camillea- and Hypoxylon-associated cankers and diebacks, Plate 101
Basal canker and butt rot caused by Kretzschmaria deusta, Plate 102
Cankers and diebacks caused by discomycetes, Plates 103-107
Sooty-bark canker of aspen and poplar, Plate 103
Cenangium dieback of pines, Plate 104
Scleroderris canker of conifers, Plate 105
Atropellis cankers of pines, Plate 106
Lachnellula cankers of conifers and Strumella canker of hardwoods, Plate 107
Root diseases, Plates 108-114
Charcoal root rot and Fusarium root rots, Plate 108
Root rots and blights caused by Cylindrocladium and Cylindrocladiella, Plate 109
Phymatotrichum and Thielaviopsis root rots, Plate 110
Xylaria and Rosellinia root rots, Plate 111
Rhizina root rot and southern blight, Plate 112
Procerum root disease of pines, Plate 113
Systemic fungal diseases, Plates 114, 116-123
Black stain root disease of conifers, Plate 114
Ceratocystis cankers, Plates 115, 116
Ceratocystis cankers of Populus and Prunus, Plate 115
Canker-stain of planetree and sycamore, Plate 116
Sapstreak disease and bluestain, Plate 117
Oak wilt, Plate 118
Dutch elm disease, Plate 119
Verticillium wilt, Plates 120, 121
Persimmon wilt, Plate 122
Fusarium wilts, Plate 123
Diseases caused by Basidiomycota, Plates 124-174
Foliar diseases, Plates 124-145
Exobasidium galls and blisters, Plate 124
Articularia and Microstroma leaf spots and witches'-brooms, Plate 125
Insolibasidium blight of honeysuckle and false smut of palms, Plate 126
Diseases caused by Rhizoctonia-forming fungi, Plate 127
Rusts, Plates 128-151
Overview of rusts
Phragmidium rusts, Plate 128
Gymnosporangium rusts, Plates 129-133
Cedar-apple rust, Plate 129
Hawthorn rust, Plate 130
Quince rust, Plate 131
Juniper broom rust, Plate 132
Broom rust of incense-cedar and rust galls on south-western junipers, Plates 132, 133
Medlar rust, Plate 133
Additional Gymnosporangium rusts
Puccinia and Cumminsiella rusts, Plates 134, 135
Ash rust, Plate 134
Cluster-cup rust of currant and gooseberry, Plate 135
Crown rust of buckthorn, Plate 135
Rusts on Berberis and Mahonia, Plate 135
Fig rust and birch rust, Plate 136
Pucciniastrum and allied rusts, Plates 137, 138
Hemlock-hydrangea rust, Plate 137
Hemlock-blueberry rusts, Plate 137
Fir-fireweed and fuschia rusts, Plates 137, 138
Fir-blueberry rust, Plate 138
Other Pucciniastrum and Thekopsora rusts in North America
Fir-fern rusts, Plate 139
Broom rust of fir, Plate 140
Melampsora rusts, Plates 141, 142
Poplar rusts, Plate 141
Willow rusts, Plate 142
Chrysomyxa rusts of spruce, Plate 143
Needle rusts of pines, Plate 144
Stem and cone rusts of pines, Plates 145-151
Overview of North American Cronartium rusts, Plate 145
White pine blister rust, Plate 146
Fusiform rust and pine-oak gall rusts, Plate 147
Sweetfern blister rust, Plate 148
Stalactiform and Comandra blister rusts, Plate 149
Limb rusts and cone rusts, Plate 150
Western gall rust, Plate 151
Trunk and limb rots of hardwoods, Plates 152-159
Overview of wood types and decay processes
Representative decay fungi: Stereum gausapatum, Hericium erinaceus, Phellinus species, Climacodon septentrionalis, Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Globifomes graveolens, Perenniporia fraxinophila, Oxyporus populinus, Trametes versicolor, Polyporus squamosus, Laetiporus species, Piptoporus betulinus, Plates 152-154
Canker-rots of hardwoods, Plates 155-158
Spiculosa canker, Plate 155
Canker rots of birch, Plate 156
Hispidus canker, heart rot and canker-rot caused by Inonotus andersonii, canker-rot caused by Inonotus glomeratus, Plate 157
Sapwood rot and cankers caused by Cerrena unicolor and Schizophyllum commune, Plate 158
Sapwood decay and silverleaf caused by Chondrostereum purpureum, Plate 159
Trunk rots and canker-rots of conifers, Plates 160, 161
Heart rots caused by Fomitopsis pinicola and Echinodontium tinctorium, Plate 160
Heart rot caused by Phellinus pini and canker rot caused by P. cancriformans, Plate 161
Root diseases, Plates 162-174
Southern blight, see Plate 112
Rhizoctonia diseases, see Plate 127
Armillaria root rots, Plates 162-164
Mushroom root rot, Plate 164
Root and butt rots caused by Heterobasidion species, Plates 165, 166
Red root and butt rot of conifers, Plates 167, 168
Brown root and butt rot of conifers, Plate 169
Laminated root rots of conifers, Plate 170
Root and butt rots caused by Inonotus dryadeus and Oxyporus latemarginatus, Plate 171
Ganoderma root and butt rots and trunk decay, Plates 172-174
Root and butt rot of palms, Plate 172
Diseases of woody dicots caused by laccate Ganodermas, Plate 173
Ganodermas on conifers, Plate 173
Diseases caused by Ganoderma applanatum and related fungi, Plate 174
Diseases caused by Oomycota, Plates 175-182
Overview of Oomycetes
Downy mildews, Plate 175
Diseases caused by Phytophthora species, Plates 176-182
Shoot blights, diebacks, and fruit rots, Plate 176
Cankers, collar and crown rots, foot rots, and root rots, Plates 176-180
Diseases caused by Phytophthora ramorum, Plate 178
Collar, crown, and foot rots, Plates 179, 180
Root rots and feeder root necroses, Plates 180-182
Root and crown rot of Port Orford cedar, Plate 180
Diseases caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, Plates 181, 182
Other Phytophthora root rots
Bacterial diseases, Plates 183-200
Leaf spots, blights, and cankers, Plates 183-188
Diseases caused by Pseudomonas species, Plates 183, 184
Diseases caused by Xanthomonas species: citrus canker, bacterial spot of Prunus, bacterial blight of walnut, and others, Plates 184-186
Fire blight, Plate 187
Bleeding bacterial cankers, Plate 188
Bacterial galls of olive, oleander, and ash, Plate 189
Crown gall, Plate 190
Wetwood, slime flux, alcoholic flux, Plate 191
Bacterial scorch diseases, Plates 192, 193
Representative diseases: Pierce's disease of grapevine, almond leaf scorch, bacterial scorch of landscape trees and shrubs
Diseases caused by mollicutes, Plates 194-200
Representative diseases: pear decline, Prunus yellow leafroll, stubborn disease of citrus, walnut witches'-broom, bunch disease of pecan and other hickories, witches'-brooms of lilac and other plants, Plates 194-196
Elm yellows, Plate 197
Ash yellows, Plate 198
X-disease of Prunus, Plate 199
Lethal yellowing of palms, Plate 200
Viral diseases, Plates 201-213
Overview and plant virus diagnosis
Diseases caused by nepoviruses: Prunus stem pitting, apple brown line, Forsythia yellow net, ash diseases, and others, Plates 201-203
Diseases caused by carlaviruses: poplar mosaic, lilac mottle, and others, Plate 204
Diseases caused by ilarviruses: sour cherry yellows, Prunus necrotic ringspot, apple mosaic, rose mosaic, and others, Plate 205
Diseases associated with cucumoviruses, potyviruses, foveaviruses, varicosaviruses: leaf and flower reddening in Nandina, necrotic spots and ring mottle in Prunus, Camellia yellow mottle, Plate 206
Diseases associated with tobamoviruses: tobacco mosaic and tomato mosaic viruses, and others, Plate 207
Diseases associated with rhabdoviruses, necroviruses, Tobacco necrosis virus, Plate 207
Diseases caused by viruslike agents not fully characterized, Plates 208-213
Rose rosette, Plate 208
Diseases of Rhododendron and related plants, Rhododendron necrotic ringspot, Plate 209
Viral diseases of aspen and poplar, Plate 210
Redbud and hibiscus diseases, Plate 211
Apple flatlimb, Plate 212
Viral symptoms in Acer, Chaenomeles, Liquidambar, Liriodendron, Lonicera, Magnolia, Plates 212, 213
Striped chlorosis of Albizia, fig mosaic, oak viruses, viral symptoms in Bougainvillea, Celtis, Euonymus, Plate 213
Viral diseases of conifers
Diseases caused by Nematodes, Plates 214-216
Overview of plant-parasitic nematodes
Representative nematodes that attack roots: root knot nematodes, burrowing nematode, stunt nematodes, lesion nematodes, dagger nematodes, Plates 214, 215
Wilt of pines caused by pine wood nematodes, Plate 216
Plant-pathogenic algae and plants, Plates 217-227
Algal leaf spot, or green scurf, Plate 217
North American leafy mistletoes, Plates 218-220
Characteristics and habits of Phoradendron
Mistletoes on angiosperms, Plates 218, 219
Mistletoes primarily on gymnosperms, Plate 220
Dwarf mistletoes, Plates 221-225
Representative dwarf mistletoes: Arceuthobium americanum, A. campylopodum complex (A. campylopodum, A. occidentale, A. laricis, A. tsugense, others), A. douglasii, A. gillii, A. vaginatum, A. pusillum, Plates 221-225
Cassytha and dodder, Plate 226
Vines that damage trees, Plate 227
Declines, environmental damage, and unexplained growth abnormalities, Plates 228-253
Decline diseases with multiple or obscure causal factors, Plates 228-231
Concepts and overview
Maple decline, Plate 228
Ash decline, Plate 229
Birch decline, pine declines, Plate 230
Oak decline, citrus blight, Plate 231
Damage by environmental factors, Plates 232-251
Damage by salt and other inorganic poisons, Plates 232, 233
Damage by misapplied pesticides, Plates 234-236
Injuries and diseases caused by air pollutants, Plates 237-241
Damage by ozone, Plates 237-239
Damage by sulfur dioxide, Plate 240
Damage by fluorides and minor pollutant gases, Plate 241
Mineral nutrient deficiencies, Plates 242, 243
Damage by drought, heat, and freezing, Plates 244-248
Water shortage, Plates 244, 245
Heat stress, Plate 245
Frost and freeze damage, Plates 245-248
Predisposition to attack by opportunistic pathogens
Damage by flooding or waterlogged soil, Plate 249
Damage by girdling roots, hail, ice glaze, and sheet ice, Plate 250
Lightning damage, Plate 251
Noninfectious and unexplained growth abnormalities: fasciation, chimeras, graft union abnormalities, adventitious shoots and roots, galls, burls, witches'-brooms, Plates 252, 253
Restoration of sapwood and bark after injury or infection, Plates 254-257
Wounds, microbial colonization, and compartmentalization, Plates 254, 255
Frost cracks, drought cracks, and related defects, Plate 256
Bark formation and restoration, Plate 257
Associations of normal woody plants with other organisms, Plates 258-261
Smooth patch, bark rot, and normal foliar shedding, Plate 258
Symbiotic relationships of roots: mycorrhizae, nitrogen-fixing associations, Plates 259, 260
Epiphytes, lichens, and moss, Plate 261
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