Principles of Animal Locomotion

ISBN-10: 0691126348

ISBN-13: 9780691126340

Edition: 2002

Authors: R. McNeill Alexander

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Description:

This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. It covers all animals that power their movements with muscle, excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia.
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Book details

List price: $85.00
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 3/19/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 384
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.144
Language: English

Preface
The Best Way to Travel
Fitness
Speed
Acceleration and Maneuverability
Endurance
Economy of Energy
Stability
Compromises
Constraints
Optimization Theory
Gaits
Muscle, the Motor
How Muscles Exert Force
Shortening and Lengthening Muscle
Power Output of Muscles
Pennation Patterns and Moment Arms
Power Consumption
Some Other Types of Muscle
Energy Requirements for Locomotion
Kinetic Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy
Elastic Strain Energy
Work That Does Not Increase the Body's Mechanical Energy
Work Requirements
Oscillatory Movements
Consequences of Size Differences
Geometric Similarity, Allometry, and the Pace of Life
Dynamic Similarity
Elastic Similarity and Stress Similarity
Methods for the Study of Locomotion
Cinematography and Video Recording
Stationary Locomotion
Measurement of Energy Consumption
Observing Flow
Forces and Pressures
Recording Muscle Action
Recording Movement at a Distance
Properties of Materials
Alternative Techniques for Locomotion on Land
Two-Anchor Crawling
Crawling by Peristalsis
Serpentine Crawling
Froglike Hopping
An Inelastic Kangaroo
A Minimal Model of Walking
The Synthetic Wheel
Walkers with Heavy Legs
Spring-Mass Models of Running
Comparisons
Walking, Running, and Hopping
Speed
Gaits
Forces and Energy
Energy-Saving Springs
Internal Kinetic Energy
Metabolic Cost of Transport
Prediction of Optimal Gaits
Soft Ground, Hills, and Loads
Stability
Maneuverability
Climbing and Jumping
Standing Jumps
Leg Design and Jumping Technique
Size and Jumping
Jumping from Branches
Climbing Vertical Surfaces and Walking on the Ceiling
Crawling and Burrowing
Worms
Insect Larvae
Molluscs
Reptiles
Mammals
Gliding and Soaring
Drag
Lift
Drag on Aerofoils
Gliding Performance
Stability
Soaring
Hovering
Airflow around Hovering Animals
Lift Generation
Power for Hovering
Powered Forward Flight
Aerodynamics of Flapping Flight
Power Requirements for Flight
Optimization of Flight
Moving on the Surface of Water
Fisher Spiders
Basilisk Lizards
Surface Swimmers
Swimming with Oars and Hydrofoils
Froude Efficiency
Drag-Powered Swimming
Swimming Powered by Lift on Limbs or Paired Fins
Swimming with Hydrofoil Tails
Porpoising
Swimming by Undulation
Undulating Fishes
Muscle Activity in Undulating Fishes
Fins, Tails, and Gaits
Undulating Worms
Swimming by Jet Propulsion
Efficiency of Jet Propulsion
Elastic Mechanisms in Jet Propulsion
Buoyancy
Buoyancy Organs
Swimming by Dense Animals
Energetics of Buoyancy
Buoyancy and Lifestyle
Aids to Human Locomotion
Shoes
Bicycles
Scuba
Boats
Aircraft without Engines
Epilogue
Metabolic Cost of Transport
Speeds
Gaits
Elastic Mechanisms
Priorities for Further Research
References
Index
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*A minimum purchase of $35 is required. Shipping is provided via FedEx SmartPost® and FedEx Express Saver®. Average delivery time is 1 – 5 business days, but is not guaranteed in that timeframe. Also allow 1 - 2 days for processing. Free shipping is eligible only in the continental United States and excludes Hawaii, Alaska and Puerto Rico. FedEx service marks used by permission."Marketplace" orders are not eligible for free or discounted shipping.

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