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Cengage Advantage Books: Understanding Arguments An Introduction to Informal Logic

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ISBN-10: 0495603953

ISBN-13: 9780495603955

Edition: 8th 2010

Authors: Robert J. Fogelin, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong

List price: $149.95
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Book details

List price: $149.95
Edition: 8th
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 2/10/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 576
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.826
Language: English

Preface
How to Analyze Arguments
Uses of Arguments
What Arguments Are
Justifications
Explanations
Combinations: An Example
The Web of Language
Language and Convention
Linguistic Acts
Speech Acts
Performatives
Kinds of Speech Acts
Speech Act Rules
Conversational Acts
Conversational Rules
Conversational Implication
Violating Conversational Rules
Rhetorical Devices
Deception
Bronston v. United States
Summary
The Language of Argument
Argument Markers
If..., then...
Arguments in Standard Form
Some Standards for Evaluating Arguments
Validity
Truth
Soundness
A Tricky Case
A Problem and Some Solutions
Assuring
Guarding
Discounting
Evaluative Language
Spin Doctoring
The Art of Close Analysis
An Extended Example
Clerk Hire Allowance, House of Representatives
Deep Analysis
Getting Down to Basics
Clarifying Crucial Terms
Dissecting the Argument
Arranging Subarguments
Suppressed Premises
Contingent Facts
Linguistic Principles
Evaluative Suppressed Premises
Uses and Abuses of Suppressed Premises
The Method of Reconstruction
Digging Deeper
An Example of Deep Analysis: Capital Punishment
How to Evaluate Arguments: Deductive Standards
Propositional Logic
The Formal Analysis of Arguments
Basic Propositional Connectives
Conjunction
Disjunction
Negation
Process of Elimination
How Truth-Functional Connectives Work
Testing for Validity
Some Further Connectives
Conditionals
Truth Tables for Conditionals
Logical Language and Everyday Language
Other Conditionals in Ordinary Language
Categorical Logic
Beyond Propositional Logic
Categorical Propositions
The Four Basic Categorical Forms
Translation into the Basic Categorical Forms
Contradictories
Existential Commitment
Validity for Categorical Arguments
Categorical Immediate Inferences
The Theory of the Syllogism
Appendix: The Classical Theory
The Classical Square of Opposition
The Classical Theory of Immediate Inference
The Classical Theory of Syllogisms
How to Evaluate Arguments: Inductive Standards
Arguments to and from Generalizations
Induction versus Deduction
Statistical Generalizations
Should We Accept the Premises?
Is the Sample Large Enough?
Is the Sample Biased?
Is the Result Biased in Some Other Way?
Statistical Applications
Causal Reasoning
Reasoning About Causes
Sufficient Conditions and Necessary Conditions
The Sufficient Condition Test
The Necessary Condition Test
The Joint Test
Rigorous Testing
Reaching Positive Conclusions
Applying These Methods to Find Causes
Normality
Background Assumptions
A Detailed Example
Calling Things Causes
Concomitant Variation
Inference to the Best Explanation and from Analogy
Inferences to the Best Explanation
Arguments from Analogy
Chances
Some Fallacies of Probability
The Gambler's Fallacy
Strange Things Happen
Heuristics
The Language of Probability
A Priori Probability
Some Rules of Probability
Bayes's Theorem
Choices
Expected Monetary Value
Expected Overall Value
Decisions Under Ignorance
Fallacies
Fallacies of Vagueness
Uses of Unclarity
Vagueness
Heaps
Slippery Slopes
Conceptual Slippery-Slope Arguments
Fairness Slippery-Slope Arguments
Causal Slippery-Slope Arguments
Fallacies of Ambiguity
Ambiguity
Equivocation
Definitions
Fallacies of Relevance
Relevance
Ad Hominem Arguments
Appeals to Authority
More Fallacies of Relevance
Fallacies of Vacuity
Circularity
Begging the Question
Self-Sealers
Refutation
What Is Refutation?
Counterexamples
Reductio Ad Absurdum
Straw Men and False Dichotomies
Refutation by Parallel Reasoning
Areas of Argumentation
Legal Reasoning
Components of Legal Reasoning
Questions of Fact
Questions of Law
The Law of Discrimination
The Equal Protection Clause
Applying the Equal Protection Clause
The Strict Scrutiny Test
The Bakke Case
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
Legal Developments Since Bakke
Burden of Proof
Moral Reasoning
Moral Disagreements
The Problem of Abortion
The "Pro-Life" Argument
"Pro-Choice" Responses
Analogical Reasoning in Ethics
Weighing Factors
"A Defense of Abortion,"
"An Argument that Abortion Is Wrong,"
Scientific Reasoning
Standard Science
Scientific Revolutions
"Molecular Machines: Experimental Support for the Design Inference,"
"Living with Darwin,"
Religious Reasoning
"Five Reasons to Believe in God,"
"Seven Deadly Objections to Belief in the Christian God,"
Philosophical Reasoning
"Computing Machinery and Intelligence,"
"The Myth of the Computer,"
Credits
Index