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Fluvial Remote Sensing for Science and Management

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ISBN-10: 0470714271

ISBN-13: 9780470714270

Edition: 2012

Authors: Patrice Carbonneau, Herv� Pi�gay

List price: $70.00
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Description:

This book offers a comprehensive overview of progress in the general area of fluvial remote sensing with a specific focus on its potential contribution to river management. The book highlights a range of challenging issues by considering a range of spatial and temporal scales with perspectives from a variety of disciplines. The book starts with an overview of the technical progress leading to new management applications for a range of field contexts and spatial scales. Topics include colour imagery, multi-spectral and hyper-spectral imagery, video, photogrammetry and LiDAR. The book then discusses management applications such as targeted, network scale, planning, land-use change modelling at catchment scales, characterisation of channel reaches (riparian vegetation, geomorphic features) in both spatial and temporal dimensions, fish habitat assessment, flow measurement, monitoring river restoration and maintenance and, the appraisal of human perceptions of riverscapes. Key Features: A specific focus on management applications in a period of increasing demands on managers to characterize river features and their evolution at different spatial scales An integration across all scales of imagery with a clear discussion of both ground based and airborne images Includes a wide-range of environmental problems Coverage of cutting-edge technology Contributions from leading researchers in the field
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Book details

List price: $70.00
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 9/14/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 458
Size: 8.00" wide x 11.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.486
Language: English

Series Foreword
Foreword
List of Contributors
Introduction: The Growing Use of Imagery in Fundamental and Applied River Sciences
Introduction
Remote sensing, river sciences and management
Key concepts in remote sensing
A short introduction to 'river friendly' sensors and platforms
Cost considerations
Evolution of published work in Fluvial Remote Sensing
Authorships and Journals
Platforms and Sensors
Topical Areas
Spatial and Temporal Resolutions
Summary
Brief outline of the volume
References
Management Applications of Optical Remote Sensing in the Active River Channel
Introduction
What can be mapped with optical imagery?
Flood extent and discharge
Water depth
Channel change
Turbidity and suspended sediment
Bed sediment
Biotypes (in-stream habitat units)
Wood
Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and algae
Evolving applications
Management considerations common to river applications
Accuracy
Ethical considerations
Why use optical remote sensing?
References
An Introduction to the Physical Basis for Deriving River Information by Optical Remote Sensing
Introduction
An overview of radiative transfer in shallow stream channels
Quantifying the light field
Radiative transfer processes along the image chain
Optical characteristics of river channels
Reflectance from the water surface
Optically significant constituents of the water column
Reflectance properties of the streambed and banks
Inferring river channel attributes from remotely sensed data
Spectrally-based bathymetric mapping via band ratios
Relative magnitudes of the components of the at-sensor radiance signal
The role of sensor characteristics
Conclusion
Notation
References
Hyperspectral Imagery in Fluvial Environments
Introduction
The nature of hyperspectral data
Advantages of hyperspectral imagery
Logistical and optical limitations of hyperspectral imagery
Image processing techniques
Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References
Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of Water Temperature in Riverine Landscapes
Introduction
State of the art: TIR remote sensing of streams and rivers
Technical background to the TIR remote sensing of water
Remote sensing in the TIR spectrum
The relationship between emissivity and kinetic and radiant temperature
Using Planck's Law to determine temperature from TIR observations
Processing of TIR image data
Atmospheric correction
Key points
Extracting useful information from TIR images
Calculating a representative water temperature
Accuracy, uncertainty, and scale
The near-bank environment
Key points
TIR imaging sensors and data sources
Ground imaging
Airborne imaging
Satellite imaging
Key points
Validating TIR measurements of rivers
Timeliness of data
Sampling site selection
Thermal stratification and mixing
Measuring representative temperature
Key points
Example 1: Illustrating the necessity of matching the spatial resolution of the TIR imaging device to river width using multi-scale observations of water temperature in the Pacific Northwest (USA)
Example 2: Thermal heterogeneity in river floodplains used to assess habitat diversity
Summary
Acknowledgements
Table of abbreviations
References
The Use of Radar Imagery in Riverine Flood Inundation Studies
Introduction
Microwave imaging of water and flooded land surfaces
Passive radiometry
Synthetic Aperture Radar
SAR interferometry
The use of SAR imagery to map and monitor river flooding
Mapping river flood inundation from space
Sources of flood and water detection errors
Integration with flood inundation modelling
Case study examples
Fuzziness in SAR flood detection to increase confidence in flood model simulations
Near real-time flood detection in urban and rural areas using high resolution space-borne SAR images
Multi-temporal SAR images to inform about floodplain dynamics
Summary and outlook
References
Airborne LiDAR Methods Applied to Riverine Environments
Introduction: LiDAR definition and history
Ranging airborne LiDAR physics
LiDAR for emergent terrestrial surfaces
LiDAR for aquatic surfaces
System parameters and capabilities: examples
Large footprint system: HawkEye II
Narrow footprint system: EAARL
Airborne LiDAR capacities for fluvial monitoring: a synthesis
LiDAR survey design for rivers
Flight planning and optimising system design
Geodetic positioning
River characterisation from LiDAR signals
Altimetry and topography
Prospective estimations
LiDAR experiments on rivers: accuracies, limitations
LiDAR for river morphology description: the Gardon River case study
LiDAR and hydraulics: the Platte River experiment
Conclusion and perspectives: the future for airborne LiDAR on rivers
References
Hyperspatial Imagery in Riverine Environments
Introduction: The Hyperspatial Perspective
Hyperspatial image acquisition
Platform considerations
Ground-tethered devices
Camera considerations
Logistics and costs
Issues, potential problems and plausible solutions
Georeferencing
Radiometric normalisation
Shadow correction
Image classification
Data mining and processing
From data acquisition to fluvial form and process understanding
Feature detection with hyperspatial imagery
Repeated surveys through time
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Geosalar: Innovative Remote Sensing Methods for Spatially Continuous Mapping of Fluvial Habitat at Riverscape Scale
Introduction
Study area and data collection
Grain size mapping
Superficial sand detection
Airborne grain size measurements
Riverscape scale grain size profile and fish distribution
Limitations of airborne grain size mapping
Example of application of grain size maps and long profiles to salmon habitat modelling
Bathymetry mapping
Further developments in the wake of the Geosalar project
Integrating fluvial remote sensing methods
Habitat data visualisation
Development of in-house airborne imaging capabilities
Flow velocity: mapping or modelling?
Future work: Integrating fish exploitation of the riverscape
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
Image Utilisation for the Study and Management of Riparian Vegetation: Overview and Applications
Introduction
Image analysis in riparian vegetation studies: what can we know?
Mapping vegetation types and land cover
Mapping species and individuals
Mapping changes and historical trajectories
Mapping other floodplain characteristics
Season and scale constraints in riparian vegetation studies
Choosing an appropriate time window for detecting vegetation types
Minimum detectable object size in the riparian zone
Spatial/spectral equivalence for detecting changes
From scientists' tools to managers' choices: what do we want to know? And how do we get it?
Which managers? Which objectives? Which approach?
Limitations of image-based approaches
Examples of imagery applications and potentials for riparian vegetation study
A low-cost strategy for monitoring changes in a floodplain forest: aerial photographs
Flow resistance and vegetation roughness parametrisation: LiDAR and multispectral imagery
Potential radar data uses for riparian vegetation characterisation
Perspectives: from images to indicators, automatised and standardised processes
Acknowledgements
References
Biophysical Characterisation of Fluvial Corridors at Reach to Network Scales
Introduction
What are the raw data available for a biophysical characterisation of fluvial corridors?
How can we treat the information?
What can we see?
Strategy for exploring spatial information for understanding river form and processes
Example of longitudinal generic parameters treatment using unorthorectified photos
The aggregation/disaggregation procedure applied at a regional network scale
Detailed examples to illustrate management issues
Retrospective approach on the Ain River: understanding channel changes and providing a sediment budget
The Dro�me network: example of up- and downscaling approach using homogeneous geomorphic reaches
Inter-reach comparisons at a network scale
Limitations and constraints when enlarging scales of interest
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
The Role of Remotely Sensed Data in Future Scenario Analyses at a Regional Scale
Introduction
The purposes of scenario-based alternative future analyses
Processes of depicting alternative future scenarios
Methods of employing remotely sensed information in alternative futures
Alternative future scenarios for the Willamette River, Oregon as a case study
Methods
Ground truthing
Use of remotely sensed data in the larger alternative futures project
Land use/land cover changes since 1850
Plan trend 2050 scenario
Development 2050 scenario
Conservation 2050 scenario
Informing decision makers at subbasin extents
Discussion
Acknowledgements
References
The Use of Imagery in Laboratory Experiments
Introduction
Bedload transport
Image-based technique to measure grainsize distribution and sediment discharge
Particle trajectories and velocities using PTV
Channel morphology and flow dynamics
Experimental deltas
Experimental river channels with riparian vegetation
Bed topography and flow depth
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Ground based LiDAR and its Application to the Characterisation of Fluvial Forms
Introduction
Terrestrial laser scanning in practice
Scales of application in studies of river systems
The sub-grain scale
The grain scale
The sub-bar unit scale
In-channel hydraulic unit scale
Micro-topographic roughness units
The bar unit scale
Reach-scale morphological analyses
Terrestrial laser scanning at the landscape scale
Towards a protocol for TLS surveying of fluvial systems
References
Applications of Close-range Imagery in River Research
Introduction
Technologies and practices
Technology
Overview of possible applications
Post-processing
Analysis of vertical images for particle size
Analysis of vertical images for particle shape
Analysis of oblique ground images
Application of vertical and oblique close-range imagery to monitor bed features and fluvial processes at different spatial and temporal scales
Vertical ground imagery for characterising grain size, clast morphometry and petrography of particles
Monitoring fluvial processes
Survey of subaerial bank processes
Inundation dynamics of braided rivers
River ice dynamics
Riparian structure and dead wood distributions along river corridors
Summary of benefits and limitations
Forthcoming issues for river management
Acknowledgements
References
River Monitoring with Ground-based Videography
Introduction
General considerations
Flow visualisation and illumination
Recording
Image ortho-rectification
Case 1 - Stream gauging
Introduction
Field site and apparatus
Image processing
Stream gauging
Results
Case 2 - Filtering bed and flare effects from LSPIV measurements
Introduction
Field site and apparatus
Data filtering
Results
Case 3 - At-a-point survey of wood transport
Introduction
Field site and apparatus
Manual detection and measurement
Image segmentation and analysis
Results
Discussion and conclusion
References
Imagery at the Organismic Level: From Body Shape Descriptions to Micro-scale Analyses
Introduction
Morphological and anatomical description
Identification
Characterisation of life-history traits and ontogenetic stages
Ecomorphological studies
Abundance and biomass
Detection of stress and diseases
Direct visualisation of stress (or its effects)
Activity of organisms as stress indicator
Fluctuating asymmetry as stress indicator
Conclusion
References
Ground Imagery and Environmental Perception: Using Photo-questionnaires to Evaluate River Management Strategies
Introduction
Conceptual framework
The design of photo-questionnaires
The questionnaire and selection of photographs
The attitude scales
The selection of participant groups
Applications with photo-questionnaires
From judgment assessment to judgment prediction
Comparing reactions between scenes and between observers
Linking judgments to environmental factors
Modelling and predicting water landscape judgments
Photographs and landscape perception, a long history of knowledge production
Conclusions and perspectives
Acknowledgements
References
Future Prospects and Challenges for River Scientists and Managers
References
Index