Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement

ISBN-10: 0470398183

ISBN-13: 9780470398180

Edition: 4th 2010

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Widely used and referenced, David Winter's Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement is a classic examination of techniques used to measure and analyze all body movements as mechanical systems, including such everyday movements as walking. In light of the explosive growth of the field, this new edition updates and enhances the text with coverage of 3D kinematics and kinetics, new material on signal processing, and updates to all existing chapters.
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Book details

List price: $150.00
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/12/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 384
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.672
Language: English

Preface to the Fourth Edition
Biomechanics as an Interdiscipline
Measurement, Description, Analysis, and Assessment
Measurement, Description, and Monitoring
Assessment and Interpretation
Biomechanics and its Relationship with Physiology and Anatomy
Scope of the Textbook
Signal Processing
Muscle and Joint Biomechanics
Synthesis of Human Movement
Biomechanical Motor Synergies
Signal Processing
Auto-and Cross-Correlation Analyses
Similarity to the Pearson Correlation
Formulae for Auto- and Cross-Correlation Coefficients
Four Properties of the Autocorrelation Function
Three Properties of the Cross-Correlation Function
Importance in Removing the Mean Bias from the Signal
Digital Implementation of Auto- and Cross-Correlation Functions
Application of Autocorrelations
Applications of Cross-Correlations
Frequency Analysis
Introduction-Time Domain vs. Frequency Domain
Discrete Fourier (Harmonic) Analysis
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
Applications of Spectrum Analyses
Ensemble Averaging of Repetitive Waveforms
Examples of Ensemble-Averaged Profiles
Normalization of Time Bases to 100%
Measure of Average Variability about the Mean Waveform
Historical Development and Complexity of Problem
Kinematic Conventions
Absolute Spatial Reference System
Total Description of a Body Segment in Space
Direct Measurement Techniques
Special Joint Angle Measuring Systems
Imaging Measurement Techniques
Review of Basic Lens Optics
f-Stop Setting and Field of Focus
Optoelectric Techniques
Advantages and Disadvantages of Optical Systems
Summary of Various Kinematic Systems
Processing of Raw Kinematic Data
Nature of Unprocessed Image Data
Signal versus Noise in Kinematic Data
Problems of Calculating Velocities and Accelerations
Smoothing and Curve Fitting of Data
Comparison of Some Smoothing Techniques
Calculation of Other Kinematic Variables
Limb-Segment Angles
Joint Angles
Velocities-Linear and Angular
Accelerations-Linear and Angular
Problems Based on Kinematic Data
Scope of Anthropometry in Movement Biomechanics
Segment Dimensions
DensityMassand Inertial Properties
Whole-Body Density
Segment Densities
Segment Mass and Center of Mass
Center of Mass of a Multisegment System
Mass Moment of Inertia and Radius of Gyration
Parallel-Axis Theorem
Use of Anthropometric Tables and Kinematic Data
Direct Experimental Measures
Location of the Anatomical Center of Mass of the Body
Calculation of the Mass of a Distal Segment
Moment of Inertia of a Distal Segment
Joint Axes of Rotation
Muscle Anthropometry
Cross-Sectional Area of Muscles
Change in Muscle Length during Movement
Force per Unit Cross-Sectional Area (Stress)
Mechanical Advantage of Muscle
Multijoint Muscles
Problems Based on Anthropometric Data
Kinetics: Forces and Moments of Force
Biomechanical Models
Link-Segment Model Development
Forces Acting on the Link-Segment Model
Joint Reaction Forces and Bone-on-Bone Forces
Basic Link-Segment Equations-the Free-Body Diagram
Force Transducers and Force Plates
Multidirectional Force Transducers117
Force Plates
Special Pressure-Measuring Sensory Systems
Synchronization of Force Plate and Kinematic Data
Combined Force Plate and Kinematic Data
Interpretation of Moment-of-Force Curves
A Note about the Wrong Way to Analyze Moments of Force
Differences between Center of Mass and Center of Pressure
Kinematics and Kinetics of the Inverted Pendulum Mode
Bone-on-Bone Forces During Dynamic Conditions
Indeterminacy in Muscle Force Estimates
Example Problem (Scott and Winter1990)
Problems Based on Kinetic and Kinematic Data
Mechanical Work, Energy, and Power
Mechanical Energy and Work
Law of Conservation of Energy
Internal versus External Work
Positive Work of Muscles
Negative Work of Muscles
Muscle Mechanical Power
Mechanical Work of Muscles
Mechanical Work Done on an External Load
Mechanical Energy Transfer between Segments
Causes of Inefficient Movement
Summary of Energy Flows
Forms of Energy Storage
Energy of a Body Segment and Exchanges of Energy Within the Segment
Total Energy of a Multisegment System
Calculation of Internal and External Work
Internal Work Calculation
External Work Calculation
Power Balances at Joints and Within Segments
Energy Transfer via Muscles
Power Balance Within Segments
Problems Based on Kinetic and Kinematic Data
Three-Dimensional Kinematics and Kinetics
Axes Systems
Global Reference System
Local Reference Systems and Rotation of Axes
Other Possible Rotation Sequences
Dot and Cross Products
Marker and Anatomical Axes Systems
Example of a Kinematic Data Set
Determination of Segment Angular Velocities and Accelerations
Kinetic Analysis of Reaction Forces and Moments
Newtonian Three-Dimensional Equations of Motion for a Segment
Eider's Three-Dimensional Equations of Motion for a Segment
Example of a Kinetic Data Set
Joint Mechanical Powers
Sample Moment and Power Curves
Suggested Further Reading
Synthesis of Human Movement-Forward Solutions
Assumptions and Constraints of Forward Solution Models
Potential of Forward Solution Simulations
Review of Forward Solution Models
Mathematical Formulation
Lagrange's Equations of Motion
The Generalized Coordinates and Degrees of Freedom
The Lagrangian Function L
Generalized Forces [Q]
Lagrange's Equations
Points and Reference Systems
Displacement and Velocity Vectors
System Energy
Segment Energy
Spring Potential Energy and Dissipative Energy
External Forces and Torques
Designation of Joints
Illustrative Example
Muscle Mechanics
The Motor Unit
Recruitment of Motor Units
Size Principle
Types of Motor Units-Fast- and Slow-Twitch Classification
The Muscle Twitch
Shape of Graded Contractions
Force-Length Characteristics of Muscles
Force-Length Curve of the Contractile Element
Influence of Parallel Connective Tissue
Series Elastic Tissue
In Vivo Force-Length Measures
Force-Velocity Characteristics
Concentric Contractions
Eccentric Contractions
Combination of Length and Velocity versus Force
Combining Muscle Characteristics with Load Characteristics: Equilibrium
Muscle Modeling
Example of a Model-EMG Driven
Kinesiological Electromyography
Electrophysiology of Muscle Contraction
Motor End Plate
Sequence of Chemical Events Leading to a Twitch
Generation of a Muscle Action Potential
Duration of the Motor Unit Action Potential
Detection of Motor Unit Action Potentials from Electromyogram during Graded Contractions
Recording of the Electromyogram
Amplifier Gain
Input Impedance
Frequency Response
Common-Mode Rejection
Cross-Talk in Surface Electromyograms
Recommendations for Surface Electromyogram Reporting and Electrode Placement Procedures
Processing of the Electromyogram
Full-Wave Rectification
Linear Envelope
True Mathematical Integrators
Relationship between Electromyogram and Biomechanical Variables
Electromyogram versus Isometric Tension
Electromyogram during Muscle Shortening and Lengthening
Electromyogram Changes during Fatigue
Biomechanical Movement Synergies
The Support Moment Synergy
Relationship between Ms and the Vertical Ground Reaction Force
Medial/Lateral and Anterior/Posterior Balance in Standing
Quiet Standing
Medial Lateral Balance Control during Workplace Tasks
Dynamic Balance during Walking
The Human Inverted Pendulum in Steady State Walking
Initiation of Gait
Gait Termination
KinematicKineticand Energy Data
Walking Trial-Marker Locations and Mass and Frame Rate Information
Raw Coordinate Data (cm)
Filtered Marker Kinematics-Rib Cage and Greater Trochanter (Hip)
Filtered Marker Kinematics-Femoral Lateral Epicondyle (Knee) and Head of Fibula
Filtered Marker Kinematics-Lateral Malleolus (Ankle) and Heel
Filtered Marker Kinematics-Fifth Metatarsal and Toe
Linear and Angular Kinematics-Foot
Linear and Angular Kinematics-Leg
Linear and Angular Kinematics-Thigh
Linear and Angular Kinematics-1/2 HAT
Relative Joint Angular Kinematics-Ankle, Knee, and Hip
Reaction Forces and Moments of Force-Ankle and Knee
Reaction Forces and Moments of Force-Hip
Segment Potential, Kinetic, and Total Energies-Foot, Leg, Thigh, and 1/2 HAT
Power Generation/Absorption and Transfer-Ankle, Knee, and Hip
Units and Definitions Related to Biomechanical and Electromyographical Measurements
Base SI Units
Derived SI Units
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