Introduction to Microwave Remote Sensing

ISBN-10: 0415271231

ISBN-13: 9780415271233

Edition: 2006

Authors: Iain Woodhouse

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This extensive introduction to microwave remote sensing, both active and passive, provides a solid primer for advanced, technically oriented undergraduates and graduate students, and also provides an introduction to the subject for other remote sensing researchers and professionals unfamiliar with microwave remote sensing. It begins with a look at the physical principles and properties of microwaves and a look at how they behave in the real world and are detected. It then gives a study of microwave systems: passive systems, basic principles of radar, conceptual issues of radar, and radar imaging and its applications; and moves on to the advanced topics of radar modelling, interferometry and polarimetry before concluding with an appendix giving some useful mathematics, notably trigonometry, logs and exponentials, complex numbers, vectors and matrices.
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Book details

List price: $115.95
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 11/2/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 400
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.936
Language: English

Why Microwaves?
Overview of Microwave Systems
Information from Passive Microwave Imagers
Information from Passive Microwave Sounders
Information from Active Microwave Instruments
How Can This Information be Used?
A Brief History of Microwaves
In the beginning...
Out of the Darkness: Maxwell and Hertz
Radios, Death Rays and Radar
The Venus Ruler and Little Green Men
Imaging Radar
Microwave Remote Sensing from Space
Further Reading
Physical Fundamentals
Physical Properties of EM Waves
Electromagnetic Radiation as Waves
Complex Wave Description
Energy and Power of Waves
Combination of Waves
The Most Important Section in This Book
Phase as a (Relative) Distance Measure
Combining Two Waves in 2-D
Quantifying the Interference Pattern
Passive Case
Multiple Source Interference Pattern
Beamwidth and Angular Resolution
Huygens' Wavelets
More on Coherence
Propagation of Microwaves
Through Lossy Media
Moving Sources
Where Do Microwaves Come From?
How Are They Produced in Nature?
Radiation Laws
How Are Microwaves Produced Artificially?
Further Reading
Describing Polarised Waves
Summary of Linear Basis
Superposition of Polarised Waves
Representing Polarisation
Poincare sphere
Mathematical Description
Stokes Vector
Brightness Stokes Vector
Partially Polarised Waves
The Stokes Scattering Matrix
The Scattering Matrix
Target Vector
Covariance Matrix
Passive Polarimetry
Polarimetry in Radar
Radar Polarimeters
Polarimetric Synthesis and Response Curves
Important Polarimetric Properties
Unpolarised Power
Degree of Polarisation and Coefficient of Variation
Polarimetric Ratios
Coherent Parameters
Polarimetric Decomposition
Further Reading
Microwaves in the Real World
Continuous Media and the Atmosphere
Radiative Transfer Theory
Microwave Brightness Temperature
Spectral Lines
Line Broadening
Faraday Rotation
Interaction With Discrete Objects
Importance of Diffraction
Radar Cross-section
Importance of Scattering Theory
Scattering and Emission from Volumes
Transmission Through Volumes
Reflection and Emission from Smooth Surfaces
Scattering from Smooth Boundaries
Emission from Smooth Boundaries
Scattering and Emission from Rough Surfaces
Definition of "Rough"
Effects of Roughness
Non-Random (Periodic) Surfaces
Scattering and Emission from Natural Surfaces
Oceans and Lakes
Ice and Snow
Freshwater Ice
Glacial Ice
Sea Ice
Bare Rock and Deserts
Special Scatterers
Corner Reflectors
Moving Targets
Mixed Targets
Further Reading
Detecting Microwaves
General Approach
Conceptual Approach to Microwave Systems
A Word of Warning
Basic Microwave Radiometer
The Antenna
Parabolic Antennas
The Dipole Antenna
Array Antennas
Antenna Properties
The Receiver
Coherent Systems
Active Systems
System Performance
Noise and Sensitivity
Sensitivity Considerations for Receivers
Other Sources of Uncertainty
Antenna Calibration
Verification and Validation
Types of Calibration
Strategies for Calibrating Receivers
Final Remarks on Calibration
Further Reading
Atmospheric Sounding
Atmospheric Sounding
The Need for Measurements
The Earth's Atmosphere
Water Vapour and Oxygen
Clouds and Precipitation
Chlorine Monoxide
Other Relevant Measurements
Principles of Measurement
Theoretical Basis of Sounding
The Forward Model
Simple Formulation of the Forward Model
The Inverse Model
Solving the Inverse Problem
The Influence Functions
Viewing Geometries
Nadir Sounding
Limb Sounding
Passive Rainfall Mapping
The Need for Measurements
Principles of Measurement
Emission Method
Scattering Method
Further Reading
Passive Imaging
Principles of Measurement
Practical Radiometers
Viewing Geometries
The Generic Forward Model
The Need for Measurements
Principles of Measurement: SST
Principles of Measurement: Ocean Salinity
Principles of Measurement: Ocean Winds
Sea Ice
The Need for Measurements
Sea Ice Concentration
The Need for Measurements
The Forward Problem Over Land
Empirical Approaches to Snow Depth
A Final Comment on Passive Polarimetry
Further Reading
Active Microwaves
Principles of Measurement
What is RADAR?
Basic Radar Operation
The Generic Equations of Radar Performance
The Radar Equation
Range resolution
Radar Altimeters
The Need for Altimeter Measurements
Altimeter Geometry
Echo Shape Analysis
Range Ambiguity
Accuracy of Height Retrievals
Scanning Altimeters
Calibration and Validation
Improving Directionality
Sub-Beamwidth Resolution
Synthetic Aperture Altimeters
The Need for Scatterometer Measurements
General Operation
Rain Radar
Polarimetric Scatterometers
Further Reading
Imaging Radar
The Need for Imaging Radar
Sea Ice
Terrestrial Surfaces
The Water Cloud Model for Vegetation
Other Uses of Radar Imagery
What is an Image?
Radar Image Construction
Side-Looking Airborne Radar
Ground Range resolution
Azimuth Resolution
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
Aperture Synthesis: A Doppler Interpretation
Aperture Synthesis: A Geometric Explanation
Geometry vs Doppler
SAR Focussing
Radar equation for SAR
Geometric Distortions in Radar Images
Lay-over and Foreshortening
Radar Shadow
Motion Errors
Moving Targets
Operational Limits
Coverage vs PRF
Other SAR Modes
ScanSAR Operation
Spotlight Mode
Working With SAR Images
Speckle Statistics
Speckle Filtering
Geometric Correction
Limitations of Geometric Correction
SAR Data Formats
Extracting Topography from SAR Images
Stereo SAR Radargrammetry
SAR Clinometry
Further Reading
The Need for Interferometric Measurements
Principles of Interferometry
Phase Measurements
Application of Dual Systems
Interferometry for Resolving Direction
Passive Imaging Interferometry
Radar Interferometry
Interferometric Altimetry
Interferometric SAR
InSAR Viewing Geometries
Interferometric Coherence Magnitude
Summary of Decorrelation
Practical DEM Generation
InSAR Processing Chain
Vegetation Height Estimation
Single Frequency
Polarimetric Interferometry and Multibaseline Interferometry
SAR Tomography
Differential SAR Interferometry
Considerations and Limitations
Atmospheric Water Vapour
Permanent Scatterer Interferometry
Along-Track Interferometry
Further Reading
Summary of Useful Mathematics
Steradian (solid angle)
Some Useful Trigonometric Relations
Logs and Exponentials
Some Fundamental Properties
Special values
Series Expansions
Complex Numbers
Law of Vector Algebra
Cross or Vector Product
Matrix Algebra
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