Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, simultaneously a theory of personality, a therapy, and an intellectual movement. He was born into a middle-class Jewish family in Freiburg, Moravia, now part of Czechoslovakia, but then a city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the age of 4, he moved to Vienna, where he spent nearly his entire life. In 1873 he entered the medical school at the University of Vienna and spent the following eight years pursuing a wide range of studies, including philosophy, in addition to the medical curriculum. After graduating, he worked in several clinics and went to Paris to study under Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist who used hypnosis to treat the symptoms of hysteria. When Freud returned to Vienna and set up practice as a clinical neurologist, he found orthodox therapies for nervous disorders ineffective for most of his patients, so he began to use a modified version of the hypnosis he had learned under Charcot. Gradually, however, he discovered that it was not necessary to put patients into a deep trance; rather, he would merely encourage them to talk freely, saying whatever came to mind without self-censorship, in order to bring unconscious material to the surface, where it could be analyzed. He found that this method of free association very often evoked memories of traumatic events in childhood, usually having to do with sex. This discovery led him, at first, to assume that most of his patients had actually been seduced as children by adult relatives and that this was the cause of their neuroses; later, however, he changed his mind and concluded that his patients' memories of childhood seduction were fantasies born of their childhood sexual desires for adults. (This reversal is a matter of some controversy today.) Out of this clinical material he constructed a theory of psychosexual development through oral, anal, phallic and genital stages. Freud considered his patients' dreams and his own to be "the royal road to the unconscious." In The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), perhaps his most brilliant book, he theorized that dreams are heavily disguised expressions of deep-seated wishes and fears and can give great insight into personality. These investigations led him to his theory of a three-part structure of personality: the id (unconscious biological drives, especially for sex), the superego (the conscience, guided by moral principles), and the ego (the mediator between the id and superego, guided by reality). Freud's last years were plagued by severe illness and the rise of Nazism, which regarded psychoanalysis as a "Jewish pollution." Through the intervention of the British and U.S. governments, he was allowed to emigrate in 1938 to England, where he died 15 months later, widely honored for his original thinking. His theories have had a profound impact on psychology, anthropology, art, and literature, as well as on the thinking of millions of ordinary people about their own lives. Freud's daughter Anna Freud was the founder of the Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic in London, where her specialty was applying psychoanalysis to children. Her major work was The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936).
Joan Riviere was born in Brighton, Sussex, in 1883, and was educated firstly in Brighton itself and then at Wycombe Abbey School, a well-known girls' boarding school. Although she received no university education, an event of great significance for her later career occurred in her seventeenth year when she was sent to live with a family in Gotha, Germany, in order to acquire proficiency in the German language. In 1906 she married Evelyn Riviere, a barrister at the Chancery bar and son of the successful Victorian painter, Breton Riviere. By 1915 she had entered into analysis with Ernest Jones, and some years later embarked on her first translations of papers by Freud. When the analysis with Jones proved unsatisfactory she became, for a brief period, Freud's analysand. Freud was quick to discern her potential usefulness to the psychoanalytic cause as a sensitive and creative translator, and in 1922 she was appointed Translation Editor of the 'International Journal of Psycho-Analysis'; a position she occupied until 1937.It is uncertain when Joan Riviere and Melanie Klein first met but, by the time Mrs. Klein settled in London in 1926, she was already established as An early supporter. In later years Riviere emerged as one of the most articulate proponents of Kleinian ideas, working closely with Mrs. Klein during the 1930s and 1940s, and publishing several papers of her own. A certain coolness, however, developed between Klein and Riviere in the 1950s as Riviere-always uneasy in groups- gradually withdrew from the growing circle of students and supporters who surrounded Klein as her influence and authority made themselves felt.Since her death in 1962, Joan Riviere's reputation has rested principally on her early achievement as a translator and on her later role as a persuasive and lucid disseminator of Freudian and Kleinian ideas. The respect gained for her in these quarters has, however, tended to obscure the importance and originality of her own contributions to psychoanalytic literature. It is to be hoped that this volume will go some way to redressing the balance and allow the reader to establish the great value of Joan Riviere's contribution to psychoanalytic theory and practice.
Peter Gay lives in New York City and Connecticut.