Observational Studies

ISBN-10: 0387989676

ISBN-13: 9780387989679

Edition: 2nd 2002 (Revised)

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Description:

Observational studies differ from experiments in that the investigator cannot control the assignment of treatment to subjects. This text discusses nonadditive models, and the planning and coherence of studies.
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Book details

List price: $189.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 1/8/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 377
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.496
Language: English

Observational Studies
What Are Observational Studies?
Some Observational Studies
Purpose of This Book
Bibliographic Notes
References
Randomized Experiments
Introduction and Example: A Randomized Clinical Trial
The Lady Tasting Tea
Randomized Experiments
Testing the Hypothesis of No Treatment Effect
Simple Models for Treatment Effects
Confidence Intervals
Point Estimates
More Complex Outcomes
Appendix: Effect Increasing Tests Under Alternatives
Appendix: The Set of Treatment Assignments
Bibliographic Notes
Problems
References
Overt Bias in Observational Studies
Introduction: An Example and Planning Adjustments
Adjustments by Exact Stratification and Matching
Case-Referent Studies
Small Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Score
Large Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Score
Inexact Matching Followed by Stratification
Bibliographic Notes
Problems
References
Sensitivity to Hidden Bias
What Is a Sensitivity Analysis?
A Model for Sensitivity Analysis
Matched Pairs
Sensitivity Analysis for Sign-Score Statistics
Multiple Controls and Continuous Responses
Sensitivity Analysis for Two Unmatched Groups
Appendix: Technical Results and Proofs
Bibliographic Notes
Problems
References
Models for Treatment Effects
Effects That Vary from Person to Person
Order Statistics
Dilated Effects
Instrumental Variables
Attributable Effects: Binary Responses
Attributable Effects: Displacements
Inference About a Quantile
Bibliographic Notes
Problems
Appendix: Minimum Wage Data
References
Known Effects
Detecting Hidden Bias Using Known Effects
An Outcome Known to Be Unaffected by the Treatment
An Outcome With Known Direction of Effect
The Behavior of T with Nonnegative Effects
Bias of Known Direction
Bibliographic Notes
Problems
References
Multiple Reference Groups in Case-Referent Studies
Multiple Reference Groups
Matched Studies with Two Referent Groups
Appendix: Selection and Hidden Bias
Appendix: Derivation of Bounds for Sensitivity Analysis
Bibliographic Notes
Problems
References
Multiple Control Groups
The Role of a Second Control Group
Selecting Control Groups
Comparing Outcomes in Two Control Groups
Bibliographic Notes
Problems
References
Coherence and Focused Hypotheses
Coherent Associations
Signed Rank Statistics for Coherent Predictions
Example: Do Anesthetic Gases Cause Mutations?
Properties of the Coherent Signed Rank Test
Some Other Forms of Coherence
Strengths and Limitations of Coherence
Appendix: Arrangement-Increasing Functions of Matrices
Bibliographic Notes
Problems
References
Constructing Matched Sets and Strata
Introduction: Propensity Scores, Structures, Algorithms
The Propensity Score
Optimal Strata
Optimal Matching
Bibliographic Notes
Software
Problems
References
Planning an Observational Study
Introduction and Some Ground Rules
Three Observational Studies
Choice of Research Hypothesis
A Control Group
Defining Treated and Control Groups
Competing Theories
Internal Replication
Nondose Nonresponse: An Absent Association
Stability Analyses
Abrupt, Short-Lived Treatments
Natural Blocks
Refute Several Alternative Explanations
Bibliographic Notes
Problems
References
Some Strategic Issues
What Are Strategic Issues?
Some Specific Suggestions
References
Index
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