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Ancient Synagogue The First Thousand Years

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ISBN-10: 0300106289

ISBN-13: 9780300106282

Edition: 2nd 2005

Authors: Lee I. Levine

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In his comprehensive history of the synagogue from the Hellenistic period through Late Antiquity, Lee Levine traces the origins and development of this dynamic and revolutionary institution. This revised paperback edition reflects the latest information in the field and includes a wealth of recently published material ranging from excavation reports and monographs to articles appearing in edited volumes and scholarly journals. Reviews of the first edition: "Will undoubtedly remain for a long time the leading work of reference in the field."--Stefan C. Reif, "Times Literary Supplement "Monumental."--Martin S. Jaffee, "Religious Studies Review "A necessary read for any serious student of…    
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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Yale University Press
Publication date: 10/24/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 816
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 3.388
Language: English

Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Sources and Methodology
History of Research
The Historical Development of the Synagogue
The Second Temple Period
State of Research
The City-Gate as Synagogue Forerunner
The Emergence of the Synagogue in the Second Temple Period
Between City-Gate and Synagogue
Concluding Remarks
Pre-70 Judaea
Galilee: Some Methodological Considerations / Nazareth / Capernaum / Tiberias / Gamla
Judaean Desert: Masada / Herodium / Qumran
The Coastal and Shephelah Regions: Dor / Caesarea / Qiryat Sefer / Modi'in (Khirbet Umm El-'Umdan)
Other Proposed Sites
The Judaean Synagogue in Perspective
The Pre-70 Diaspora
Egypt: Epigraphical and Papyrological Evidence / Philo / a Rabbinic Tradition
Berenice (Cyrene)
Italy: Ostia / Rome
Asia Minor and Greece: Josephus / New Testament / the Acmonia Inscription
The Kingdom of Bosphorus
The Diaspora Synagogue in Perspective
The Second Temple Synagogue-Its Role and Functions
The Synagogue as a Community Center
The Synagogue as a Religious Institution: Torah Reading / Reading from the Prophets (Haftarah) / Study and Instruction / Sermons / Targumim / Communal Prayer
The First-Century Synagogue in Historical Perspective
Late Antiquity
Late Roman Palestine (70-Fourth Century C.E.)
Sources and Methodology: Rabbinic Material-Abundance and Scarcity / Post-70 Synagogues: the Archaeological Evidence? / Synagogue Building in the Mid Third Century
Continuity and Change
Synagogues in Roman Palestine-Further Observations
Byzantine Palestine
Diversity within Commonality
Figural Art in Historical Perspective
Jewish Motifs in the Byzantine-Christian Context
The Synagogue's Enhanced Religious Dimension
The Impact of Christianity
Concluding Remarks
Diaspora Synagogues
Archaeological Sites: Dura Europos / Gerasa / Apamea / Sardis / Priene / Aegina / Plovdiv / Stobi / Ostia / Bova Marina / Naro (Hammam-Lif) / Elche
Synagogues of Rome
Babylonian Synagogues
The Centrality of the Diaspora Synagogue
Between Unity and Diversity
Religious Leadership
Synagogues in the Diaspora and Palestine-Similarities and Differences
Some Concluding Thoughts
The Synagogue as an Institution
The Building
The Synagogue Complex
Atriums and Water Installations
Benches and Columns
Partitions and Balconies
Bimot, Tables, and Platforms
Cathedra of Moses
The Torah Shrine
The Eternal Light and the Menorah
A Rabbinic Source on the Synagogue Interior
Liturgy and Architecture: The Worship Setting
The Communal Dimension
Community Control
Institutional Functions: Meeting Place / Court / Charity / Place of Study / Library / Place of Residence / Place for Individual Needs
Other Officials: Archon / Pater Synagoges / Mater Synagoges / Presbyter (Elder) / Grammateus / Phrontistes / Hazzan / Teacher / Minor Officials
Synagogue Officials in Jewish Palestine and the Diaspora
The Patriarch (Nasi) and the Synagogue
Rabbinic Literature
Archaeological Evidence
The Theodosian Code
Patriarchal Involvement in the Synagogue
The Sages and the Synagogue
Non-Rabbinic Sources
Rabbinic Sources: Dissonance Between the Sages and the Synagogue / Synagogue Versus Bet Midrash / the Sages and Figural Art
Rabbinic Involvement in the Synagogue
Rabbis and Liturgy
Concluding Remarks
Women in the Synagogue
Liturgical Roles
Women in Synagogue Life: Historical Perspectives
Priests in Synagogue Ritual
Methodological Considerations
The Second Century: Torah Reading / the 'Amidah / the Shema' Liturgy / other Liturgical Developments / Rabbinic Liturgy and the Second-Century Synagogue / Early Christian and Rabbinic Liturgies
Late Antiquity: the Third Century / Differences Between Palestine and Babylonia / Prayer / Qedushah / Archaeological Evidence for Prayer / the Torah Reading and Its Accompanying Activities / Piyyut
Beyond Late Antiquity
Iconography: The Limits of Interpretation
Methodological Considerations
Comparisons with Christian Art
The Use and Abuse of Literary Sources
Limitations in the Interpretation of Jewish Art: Menorah / Helios and the Zodiac Signs / Programmatic Explanations
Concluding Perspectives
Diachronic and Synchronic Dimensions-The Synagogue in Context
Architectural Evidence
Communal Center
Degrees of Hellenization
Unique Jewish Components
List of Abbreviations
Illustration Credits
Source Index
Subject Index