Inclusion The Politics of Difference in Medical Research

ISBN-10: 0226213102

ISBN-13: 9780226213101

Edition: 2009

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As a society, we have learned to value diversity. But can some strategies to achieve diversity mask deeper problems, ones that might require a different approach and different solutions? WithInclusion, Steven Epstein argues that in the field of medical research, the answer is an emphatic yes. Formal concern with diversity in American medical research, Epstein shows, is a fairly recent phenomenon. Until the mid-1980s, few paid close attention to who was included in research subject pools. Not uncommonly, scientists studied groups of mostly white, middle-aged menand assumed that conclusions drawn from studying them would apply to the rest of the population. But struggles involving advocacy groups, experts, and Congress led to reforms that forced researchers and pharmaceutical companies to diversify the population from which they drew for clinical research. That change has gone hand in hand with bold assertions that group differences in society are encoded in our biologyfor example, that there are important biological differences in the ways that people of different races and sexes respond to drugs and other treatments. While the prominence of these inclusive practices has offered hope to traditionally underserved groups, Epstein argues forcefully that it has drawn attention away from the tremendous inequalities in health that are rooted not in biology but in society. There is, for instance, a direct relationship between social class and health statusand Epstein believes that a focus on bodily differences can obscure the importance of this factor. Only when connected to a broad-based effort to address health disparities, Epstein explains, can a medical policy of inclusion achieve its intended effects. A fascinating history, powerful analysis, and call to action,Inclusionwill be essential reading for medical professionals, policymakers, and any concerned citizen.
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Book details

List price: $28.00
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Publication date: 4/1/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.232
Language: English

List of Abbreviations
Introduction: Health Research and the Remaking of Common Sense
How to Study a Biopolitical Paradigm
Histories of the Human Subject
The Rise of Resistance: Framing the Critique of the Standard Human
The Path to Reform: Aligning Categories, Targeting the State
Opposition to Reform: Controversy, Closure, and Boundary Work
Formalizing the New Regime
From the Standard Human to Niche Standardization
Counts and Consequences: Monitoring Compliance
The Science of Recruitmentology and the Politics of Trust
To Profile or Not to Profile: What Difference Does Race Make?
Sex Differences and the New Politics of Women's Health
Whither the Paradigm?
Conclusion: Identity, Difference, Disparities, and Biopolitical Citizenship
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