Development in Adulthood

ISBN-10: 0205439640

ISBN-13: 9780205439645

Edition: 4th 2006 (Revised)

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This comprehensive, multidisciplinary text presents an empowering view of adulthood through an examination of the nature and sources of diversity and the influences of age, gender, cohort, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and culture on development. This fourth edition continues its commitment to being the most current, comprehensive, scholarly, and readable text on adult development and aging available. While retaining its theoretical foundations in the life-span developmental perspective and the contextual model of development as represented by Bronfenbrennerrsquo;s Ecological Systems Theory, this text has been thoroughly revised to strengthen and polish its pedagogy and organization, still allowing room for the most current research and thinking in the field and expanded treatment of emerging hot topics. Students will find this topically organized text an engaging and accessible introduction to the challenges and opportunities of adult life. Features bull; bull;Fresh perspectives are offered from the field, including expanded coverage of high-interest and highly relevant material. bull;Emphasis on development-in-context, and on the nature and sources of diversity helps the reader to grasp and appreciate individual differences in development. bull;Strong pedagogical structure actively engages the reader, clarifies and reinforces content, enhances comprehension, and maximizes retention. bull;Real-life applications integrated throughout provide a bridge between theory, research, and practice, enabling students to connect with the material on a personal level. New to This Edition bull; bull;Material on emerging hot topics exposes students to the most current research and perspectives in the field. bull;Additional material enhances student appreciation for the context of development, including Understanding the Developmental Context boxes throughout. Two new boxes include a discussion of a new transitional developmental stage called Midcourse: Let's Retire the Concept of Retirement in Chapter 2 and a review of research on so-called brain-enhancing chemicals called Better Thinking through Chemistry? in Chapter 5.
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Book details

List price: $191.00
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/28/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 576
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.618
Language: English

The Study of Development in Adulthood
Demography and a Changing View of Adulthood
Increased Life Expectancy
The Baby Boom
Why Study Adult Development?
Life-Span Developmental Perspective
Development Is a Lifelong Process
Development Includes Both Gains and Losses
Development Is Multidimensional, Multidirectional, and Multicausal
Development Is Plastic
Development Is Embedded in Historical, Cultural, and Social Contexts
Development Is a Multidisciplinary Field
Research Concepts, Methods, and Designs
Two Key Concepts in Research: Reliability and Validity
Methods of Collecting Data
Nondevelopmental versus Developmental Research
General Research Designs
Developmental Research Designs
Special Considerations and Limitations in the Research
Cultural, Racial, Socioeconomic, and Gender Bias
Box: Difficulties in Identifying and Defining American Ethnic Groups
Review Questions
Key Terms
Theories of Psychosocial Development
Organismic, Mechanistic, and Contextual Models
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Rigor versus Relevance: Caught between a Rock and a Soft Place?
A Systems Approach: Reciprocal Interactions
Phenomenology: Through the Eyes of the Beholder
The Ecological View of the Environment
Ages and Stages: The Psychoanalytic Tradition
Stage Theory Defined
Freud, Jung, and Erikson
Erikson's Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development
A Closer Look at Generativity
Levinson's Seasons of a Man's Life
Havighurst's Developmental Tasks
A Final Look at Stage Theory: Major Criticisms
Multiple Meanings of Time and Age
Box: Midcourse: Let's Retire the Term Retirement
Trait Models: McCrae and Costa's Five-Factor Model of Personality
Defining a Trait
Defining the Five Factors
Do I Know You? Stability versus Change in the Adult Personality
A Historical View of the Issue: The Pendulum Swings
What Changes and What Stays the Same?
Review Questions
Key Terms
The Self: Development and Issues of Culture, Gender, Ethnicity, and Age
Defining the Self
Contributions of William James
Setting Things Straight: A Confusion of Monikers
The Self-Concept: The Cognitive Theory of Self
Viewing the Self-Concept as a Self-Schema
Cognitive Impact of the Self-concept
How Many of You Are There?
Self-Esteem: The Assessment of One's Worth
Importance of a Sense of Worth
Building Blocks of Self-Esteem
I Think I Can, I Think I Can: A Look at Self-Efficacy
Sources of Self-Efficacy
Correlates of Self-Efficacy
Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy
Identity: Who Am I and Where Am I Going?
Identity Defined: Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
Formation of Identity: Marcia's Identity Status Approach
A Critique of the Identity Status Model
The Self in Cross-Cultural Perspective
Collectivism versus Individualism
Women, Men, and Identity Formation
Traditional Gender Roles
Social versus Evolutionary Origins
Prominence of the Male Model of Development
Box: Does It Matter What Year You Were Born?
The Intersection of Gender, Generation, and History
Identity Research and Women
Race/Ethnicity and the Development of the Self
Self-Esteem among Black Americans
Self-Efficacy among Black Americans
Identity Formation among Blacks
Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status
Ethnic Groups and Core Characteristics: Hispanics, Asian Americans, and Native Americans
Effect of Age on the Self
Patterns of Age-Related Change in Adult Personality
Maintaining Continuity of the Self
You're Only as Old as You Feel: The Impact of Subjective Age
Impact of Age on Self-Esteem
Defenses Used to Protect the Self
Causes of Low Self-Esteem in Late Adulthood
Review Questions
Key Terms
Cognitive Processes in Adulthood, Part 1: Dimensions and Directions
A Life-Span View of Cognitive Development
Evolution of Cognitive Psychology
Defining Adult Intelligence
Key Perspectives of Life-Span Cognitive Development
Growth, Stability, or Decline?
Evidence of Cognitive Decline: The Decrementalist View
Major Findings
Evidence of Cognitive Growth: The Continued Potential View
Adult Life-Span Learning
Quantitative versus Qualitative Gains in Adult Cognition
Expertise, Wisdom, and Creativity
Successful Cognitive Aging
Review Questions
Key Terms
Cognitive Processes in Adulthood, Part II: Influences and Explanations
Research and Measurement Issues
Psychosocial Explanations
Exposure to a Stimulating Environment
Psychological Factors
Demographic Variables
Information-Processing Explanations
Speed of Processing
Status of Information-Processing Approaches
Physiological Explanations
Changes in the Brain with Age
Changes in and between Neurons, and Plasticity
Box: Better Thinking through Chemistry?
Applications and Implications of Cognitive Aging Research
Final Comments on Cognitive Development
Review Questions
Key Terms
Social Development, Friendship, and Mate Selection
Overview of Social Relationships
Nature of Relationships
Benefits of Relating
Social Support
Convoy Model of Social Relationships
Equity Theory: A Theory of Social Interaction
Ethnic Differences
Impact of Early Experience on Adult Relationships
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
Attachment Theory
Attachment Theory and Romantic Love
Concluding Thoughts
Research Problems
Nature of Friendship
Functions of Friendship
Gender Differences
Friendship Development over the Life Span
The Future of Friendship
Leaving Home: Transition from the Family of Origin
Box: Emerging Adulthood: The Age of Possibilities
Mate Selection: Who Marries Whom and Why?
Propinquity: "The Girl (or Boy) Next Door"
Attractiveness: "I Know What I Like"
Similarity (Homogamy): "Birds of a Feather"
Reciprocity: "You Scratch My Back and I'll Scratch Yours"
Complementarity: "Completing the Self"
The Right Person at the Right Time: "Timing Is Everything"
Male-Female Differences in Sexual Attitudes
Sexuality among Young and Middle-Aged Adults
Late-Life Sexuality
Sexual Orientation
Review Questions
Key Terms
Family Ties, Transitions, and Challenges
Family Development
Family Life Cycle
Family Developmental Tasks
Cycle of Generations
Limitations of the Family Development Model
Changing Families, Changing Times
Marriage: Establishing a Family of One's Own
Statistical Trends
Components of Romantic Love
Marital Roles
Alternative Unions (Same-Sex and Nonmarried Romantic Relationships)
Benefits of Marriage
Marital Satisfaction
A Life-Span View of Parenthood
Changing Roles
Delayed Parenthood
The Transition to Parenthood: Changes in Lifestyle and Family Life
Where's Daddy?
Children and Marital Satisfaction
The Middle Years of Parenthood
The Later Years of Parenthood
The Context of Parenthood
Intergenerational Ties
Parent-Adult Child Relationships
Box: Grandparenthood among the Navajo
Adult Sibling Relationships
Sibling Relationships as Attachments
Unique Qualities
Pattern over Time
Functions of the Sibling Relationship
Additional Questions
Family Caregiving
Caregiving as a Normative Experience
Changed Nature of Caregiving
Who Is the Caregiver?
Caregiving Career
Caregiver Tasks
Caregiver Stress
Family Violence
A Brief History of the Study of Domestic Violence
Causal Factors
Abuser and Victim Profiles
Consequences of Family Violence
Developmental Patterns in Adult Abusive Relationships
Review Questions
Key Terms
Work and Retirement
Nature of Work
Significance of Work in Adult Life
Why Work?
A Changing Work World: Work, Workers, Workplace
Career Development
Career Cycle
Challenges to the Traditional View: Increasing Diversity of Career Paths
Why Do We Choose the Work We Do?
How Effectively Do We Choose?
Age and Job Satisfaction
Growing Up and the Dream
Gender and Work: Women's Career Paths and Special Career Issues
Changing Nature of Women's Work and Working Women
Women's Career Patterns and Work Experiences
Multiple Roles: Combining Career and Family
Retirement and Leisure
Retirement as a Life Stage: A Brief Social History
Research Limitations
A Life-Span View of Retirement
Predictors of Retirement
Retirement as a Developmental Process
Impact of Retirement on Individual Well-Being
Economics of Retirement: Social Security and Pensions
Work and Retiring: The 21st Century
Box: Finding Niches for Golden Workers
Importance of Leisure over the Life Span
Review Questions
Key Terms
Physical Development and Aging
What Is This Thing Called Aging?
Primary versus Secondary Aging
Current Conceptions of Aging
Physical Development in Adulthood
Changes in the Skin and Connective Tissue
Changes in the Skeletal System
Changes in Skeletal Muscle
Changes in the Cardiovascular System
Changes in the Repiratory System
Changes in the Immune System
Changes in the Endocrine System
Changes in the Reproductive System
Changes in Sensory Capacity with Age
Theories of Biological Aging
Aging by Design: Programmed Theories of Aging
Aging by Accident: Stochastic Theories of Aging
In Search of an Integrated Theory
The Goal of Aging Research: Adding Life to Years or Years to Life?
Review Questions
Key Terms
Health, Longevity, and Prevention
Health, Disease, and Disability
Defining and Measuring Health, Disease, and Illness
Age and Health
Box: Transgenerational Design: Designing Products and Environments for People of All Ages
Effects of Gender and Race on Health and Longevity
Prevention of Illness and Promotion of Health
Three Levels of Prevention
Matching the Program to the Person
Risk Factors
An Overview of Preventive Behaviors
Context of Health and Illness: An Ecological View
Medication Use among Older Adults: A Health Concern
Long-Term Care
Successful Aging: A Multidimensional Effort
Review Questions
Key Terms
Coping, Adaptation, and Mental Health
Most People Are Happy
Determinants of Happiness
Religious Involvement and Spirituality
Stress, Coping, and Locus of Control
Nature of Stress
Effects of Stress
Coping with Stress
Beliefs about Personal Control
An Overview of the Mental Health Status of Adults
Age-Related Trends in Psychological Health
Gender Differences in Rates of Mental Disorders
Gender, Age, and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Help Seeking
Science of Prevention
A Look at Two mental Disorders in Adulthood
Major Depression
Alzheimer's Disease
Review Questions
Key Terms
Death, Dying, and Bereavement
The Changed Nature of Death
Attitudes toward Death
The Death-Denying Society
Psychology's Approach to Death
Death Anxiety
The Dying Person
Contributions of Kubler-Ross
Dying Well
Right-to-Die Movement: Suicide, Assisted Suicide, and Euthanasia
Improving Care of the Dying
Grief and Bereavement
Cultural and Historical Context of Grief
Box: Death and Grief among the Lakota Sioux
Resilience in the Face of Loss
Grief Process
Unanticipated and Anticipated Death
Health and Mortality Risks of Bereavement
The Funeral and Other Leave-Taking Rituals
Condolence Behavior
Bereavement as a Transition
Review Questions
Key Terms
Name Index
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