Evidence-Based Practice in Educating Deaf and Hard-Of-Hearing Students

ISBN-10: 0199735409

ISBN-13: 9780199735402

Edition: 2010

Authors: Patricia Elizabeth Spencer, Marc Marschark

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Debates about methods of supporting language development and academic skills of deaf or hard-of-hearing children have waxed and waned for more than 100 years: Will using sign language interfere with learning to use spoken language or does it offer optimal access to communication for deaf children? Does placement in classrooms with mostly hearing children enhance or impede academic and social-emotional development? Will cochlear implants or other assistive listening devices provide deaf children with sufficient input for age-appropriate reading abilities? Are traditional methods of classroom teaching effective for deaf and hard-of-hearing students? Although there is a wealth of evidence with regard to each of these issues, too often, decisions on how to best support deaf and hard-of-hearing children in developing language and academic skills are made based on incorrect or incomplete information. No matter how well-intentioned, decisions grounded in opinions, beliefs, or value judgments are insufficient to guide practice. Instead, we need to take advantage of relevant, emerging research concerning best practices and outcomes in educating deaf and hard-of-hearing learners. In this critical evaluation of what we know and what we do not know about educating deaf and hard-of-hearing students, the authors examine a wide range of educational settings and research methods that have guided deaf education in recent years--or should. The book provides a focus for future educational and research efforts, and aims to promote optimal support for deaf and hard-of-hearing learners of all ages. Co-authored by two of the most respected leaders in the field, this book summarizes and evaluates research findings across multiple disciplines pertaining to the raising and educating of deaf children, providing a comprehensive but concise record of the successes, failures, and unanswered questions in deaf education. A readily accessible and invaluable source for teachers, university students, and other professionals, Evidence-Based Practice in Educating Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students encourages readers to reconsider assumptions and delve more deeply into what we really know about deaf and hard-of-hearing children, their patterns of development, and their lifelong learning.
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Book details

List price: $47.95
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Oxford University Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 7/21/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 264
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.792
Language: English

Marc Marschark is a Professor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, where he is Director of the Center for Education Research Partnerships. He has written or edited over 20 books and published over 100 articles and chapters. His current research focuses on relations of language and learning by deaf children and adults in formal and informal educational settings. Peter C. Hauser is an Associate Professor at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. A deaf clinical neuropsychologist, he is the director of the Deaf Studies Laboratory (DSL) where he supervises deaf, hard-of-hearing, and hearing students who obtain hands-on experience developing, running, and analyzing experimental psychological studies.

Introduction and Key Findings Index
Key Findings Index
Demographics, Diversity, and Foundational Issues in Deaf Education
A �Low Incidence� Disability
Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children in Countries with Developing Economies
Multiple Disabilities, or Children with Dual Diagnoses
Developmental Challenges
Academic Achievement
Social-Emotional Development
Advances in the Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students
Processes of Evaluation
Summary: Understanding and Educating Children with Hearing Loss
Evaluating the Evidence in Deaf Education: Methods for Obtaining Trustworthy and Useful Information
Designs for Research and Evaluation on Educational Practice and Outcomes
Randomized Clinical Trials, or Experimental Research
Quasi-Experimental Research
Single-Subject Research
Correlational Research
Qualitative Research
Practice-Based Wisdom
Considerations for Studies Included in This Review
Summary: How Do We Know What We Know?
Early Identification of Hearing Loss and Early Intervention Services: Implications for Language and Learning
Newborn Screening and Family Reactions
Enhanced Developmental Outcomes Related to Early Identification
How Early is �Early Enough?�
Characteristics of Early Intervention That Support Positive Developmental Outcomes
Summary: Early Identification and Intervention are Cost-Effective
Language Development, Languages, and Language Systems
Perspectives on Language Development and Deaf Children
Approaches Emphasizing Auditory-Oral Aspects of Language Development
Auditory-Oral Methods and Language Development
Cochlear Implants and Progress in Oral Programs
An Example: Outcomes of Children in a Traditional Oral Program
Auditory-Verbal Therapy
Cued Speech
Using Cochlear Implants and Cued Speech
Approaches Emphasizing Visual-Manual Aspects of Language Development
Manually Coded Sign Systems Used in Total Communication Programs
Using Cochlear Implants in TC Programs
Sign, Sign Bilingual, or �Bilingual/Bicultural� Programming
The Sign/Bilingual Approach as an Educational Model
Cochlear Implants and Sign/Bilingual Programming
Summary: Language Learning in Speech and Sign
Acquisition and Development of Literacy Skills
Factors Proposed to Influence Reading Skills
Early, Interactive, Pre-Literacy Experiences Support Literacy Development
Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Literacy Skills
Emphasizing Auditory Information to Build Phonological Knowledge and Literacy Skills
Phonological Knowledge and Literacy When Visual Language Input Is Increased
Vocabulary and Literacy Development
Syntactic Knowledge and Reading
Knowledge of a First Language as a Basis for Literacy in a Second Language
Teaching Approaches and the Development of Reading Comprehension
Metacognition and Reading Comprehension
Summary: The Continuing Challenge of Literacy
Cognition, Perception, and Learning Strategies
Foundations of Learning: Play and Theory of Mind
Theory of Mind
Visual Attention, Language, and Communication
Memory Processes, Perception, and Learning
Integrating Information and Using Problem-Solving Strategies
Responses to Cognitive Intervention
Summary: On Thinking and Learning
Achievement in Mathematics and Science
Early Development
Mathematics Development during School Years
Components of Mathematics Performance
Mathematics Interventions for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students
Development of Mathematics Concepts and Skills: Where Are We?
Science Education and Achievement
Fostering Science Learning by Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students
Summary: Discoveries in Math and Science
Educational Placement Decisions and Outcomes
Student Characteristics, Needs, and Placement Patterns
Social-Emotional Functioning and Co-Enrollment Programs
Program Placement and Student Outcomes
A Co-Enrollment Model
A Mainstreaming Approach for Students Using Spoken Language
Special Classrooms, Centers, or Schools: Sign/Bilingual Programming
Classroom Physical Settings and Acoustic Concerns
Classroom Interpreting and Real-Time Text
Summary: The Who, What, and Where of Going to School
Programming for Children with Multiple Disabilities
Variability among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children with Multiple Disabilities
Children with Cognitive or Intellectual Disabilities
Cochlear Implants, Cognitive Delays, and Language Development
Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder
Attention Disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Congenital Rubella Syndrome
Genetic/Chromosomal Syndromes
A Broader View
Summary: Serving Children with Multiple Challenges
Issues and Trends in Best Practice
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