George Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair in 1903 in Motihari in Bengal, India and later studied at Eton for four years. Orwell was an assistant superintendent with the Indian Imperial Police in Burma. He left the position after five years and then moved to Paris, where he wrote his first two books, Burmese Days and Down and Out In Paris. Orwell then moved to Spain to write but decided to join the United Workers Marxist Party Militia. After being decidedly opposed to communism, Orwell served in the British Home Guard and with the Indian Service of the BBC during World War II. He started writing for the Observer and was literary editor for the Tribune. Soon after he published the world-famous book, Animal Farm, which became a huge success for Orwell. It was then towards the end of his life when Orwell wrote Nineteen Eighty-Four. George Orwell died on January 23, 1950 in London.
George Packer is an American writer, teacher, and former Peace Corps volunteer. He was also a writing instructor at Harvard, Bennington, and Emerson Universities. Packer was born on August 13, 1960, in Santa Clara, California. Packer's experience with the Peace Corps helped him write the book The Village is Waiting. He has also written The Half Man, Central Square and The Assassins' Gate: America in Iraq. He was a supporter of the Iraq war. He was a finalist for the 2004 Michael Kelly Award. In 2013, Packer's work of nonfiction entitled, The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America, won the U.S. National Book Award.
Mikhail Afanasevich Bulgakov was a Russian playwright, novelist, and short-story writer best known for his use of humor and satire. He was born in Kiev, Ukraine, on May 15, 1891, and graduated from the Medical School of Kiev University in 1916. He served as a field doctor during World War I. Bulgakov's association with the Moscow Art Theater began in 1926 with the production of his play The Days of the Turbins, which was based on his novel The White Guard. His work was popular, but since it ridiculed the Soviet establishment, was frequently censored. His satiric novel The Heart of a Dog was not published openly in the U.S.S.R. until 1987. Bulgakov's plays including Pushkin and Moliere dealt with artistic freedom. His last novel, The Master and Margarita, was not published until 1966-67 and in censored form. Bulgakov died in Moscow on March 10, 1940.Mikhail Bulgakov(18911940) was a Russian novelist and playwright best known for the novel The Master and Margarita. Andrew Bromfieldhas translated works by Boris Akunin, Vladimir Voinovich, Irina Denezhkina, and Victor Pelevin. Keith Gessenwas born in Russia and is a novelist, critic, translator, and cofounder of the literary magazine n + 1. He lives in New York.