| |

| |

Preface | |

| |

| |

Acknowledgments | |

| |

| |

| |

Semiconductor Diodes | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Ideal Diode | |

| |

| |

| |

Semiconductor Materials | |

| |

| |

| |

Energy Levels | |

| |

| |

| |

Extrinsic Materials--n- and p-Type | |

| |

| |

| |

Semiconductor Diode | |

| |

| |

| |

Mathcad | |

| |

| |

| |

Resistance Levels | |

| |

| |

| |

Diode Equivalent Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Diode Specification Sheets | |

| |

| |

| |

Transition and Diffusion Capacitance | |

| |

| |

| |

Reverse Recovery Time | |

| |

| |

| |

Semiconductor Diode Notation | |

| |

| |

| |

Diode Testing | |

| |

| |

| |

Zener Diodes | |

| |

| |

| |

Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) | |

| |

| |

| |

Diode Arrays--Integrated Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Diode Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Load-Line Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Diode Approximations | |

| |

| |

| |

Series Diode Configurations with DC Inputs | |

| |

| |

| |

Parallel and Series--Parallel Configurations | |

| |

| |

| |

AND/OR Gates | |

| |

| |

| |

Sinusoidal Inputs; Half-Wave Rectification | |

| |

| |

| |

Full-Wave Rectification | |

| |

| |

| |

Clippers | |

| |

| |

| |

Clampers | |

| |

| |

| |

Zener Diodes | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltage-Multiplier Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Bipolar Junction Transistors | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Transistor Construction | |

| |

| |

| |

Transistor Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Common-Base Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Transistor Amplifying Action | |

| |

| |

| |

Common-Emitter Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Common-Collector Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Limits of Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Transistor Specification Sheet | |

| |

| |

| |

Transistor Testing | |

| |

| |

| |

Transistor Casing and Terminal Identification | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

DC Biasing--BJTs | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Operating Point | |

| |

| |

| |

Fixed-Bias Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Emitter-Stabilized Bias Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltage-Divider Bias | |

| |

| |

| |

DC Bias with Voltage Feedback | |

| |

| |

| |

Miscellaneous Bias Configurations | |

| |

| |

| |

Design Operations | |

| |

| |

| |

Transistor Switching Networks | |

| |

| |

| |

Troubleshooting Techniques | |

| |

| |

| |

PNP Transistors | |

| |

| |

| |

Bias Stabilization | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Field-Effect Transistors | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Construction and Characteristics of JFETs | |

| |

| |

| |

Transfer Characteristics | |

| |

| |

| |

Specification Sheets (JFETs) | |

| |

| |

| |

Instrumentation | |

| |

| |

| |

Important Relationships | |

| |

| |

| |

Depletion-Type MOSFET | |

| |

| |

| |

Enhancement-Type MOSFET | |

| |

| |

| |

MOSFET Handling | |

| |

| |

| |

VMOS | |

| |

| |

| |

CMOS | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary Table | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Fet Biasing | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Fixed-Bias Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Self-Bias Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltage-Divider Biasing | |

| |

| |

| |

Depletion-Type MOSFETs | |

| |

| |

| |

Enhancement-Type MOSFETs | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary Table | |

| |

| |

| |

Combination Networks | |

| |

| |

| |

Design | |

| |

| |

| |

Troubleshooting | |

| |

| |

| |

P-Channel FETs | |

| |

| |

| |

Universal JFET Bias Curve | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

BJT Transistor Modeling | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Amplification in the AC Domain | |

| |

| |

| |

BJT Transistor Modeling | |

| |

| |

| |

The Important Parameters: Z[subscript i], Z[subscript o], A[subscript v], A[subscript i] | |

| |

| |

| |

The r[subscript e] Transistor Model | |

| |

| |

| |

The Hybrid Equivalent Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Graphical Determination of the h-Parameters | |

| |

| |

| |

Variations of Transistor Parameters | |

| |

| |

| |

BJT Small-Signal Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Common-Emitter Fixed-Bias Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltage-Divider Bias | |

| |

| |

| |

CE Emitter-Bias Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Emitter-Follower Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Common-Base Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Collector Feedback Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Collector DC Feedback Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Approximate Hybrid Equivalent Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Complete Hybrid Equivalent Model | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary Table | |

| |

| |

| |

Troubleshooting | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

FET Small-Signal Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

FET Small-Signal Model | |

| |

| |

| |

JFET Fixed-Bias Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

JFET Self-Bias Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

JFET Voltage-Divider Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

JFET Source-Follower (Common-Drain) Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

JFET Common-Gate Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Depletion-Type MOSFETs | |

| |

| |

| |

Enhancement-Type MOSFETs | |

| |

| |

| |

E-MOSFET Drain-Feedback Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

E-MOSFET Voltage-Divider Configuration | |

| |

| |

| |

Designing FET Amplifier Networks | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary Table | |

| |

| |

| |

Troubleshooting | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Systems Approach--Effects of R[subscript S] and R[subscript L] | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Two-Port Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Effect of a Load Impedance (R[subscript L]) | |

| |

| |

| |

Effect of a Source Impedance (R[subscript S]) | |

| |

| |

| |

Combined Effect of R[subscript S] and R[subscript L] | |

| |

| |

| |

BJT CE Networks | |

| |

| |

| |

BJT Emitter-Follower Networks | |

| |

| |

| |

BJT CB Networks | |

| |

| |

| |

FET Networks | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary Table | |

| |

| |

| |

Cascaded Systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

BJT and Jfet Frequency Response | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Logarithms | |

| |

| |

| |

Decibels | |

| |

| |

| |

General Frequency Considerations | |

| |

| |

| |

Low-Frequency Analysis--Bode Plot | |

| |

| |

| |

Low-Frequency Response--BJT Amplifier | |

| |

| |

| |

Low-Frequency Response--FET Amplifier | |

| |

| |

| |

Miller Effect Capacitance | |

| |

| |

| |

High-Frequency Response--BJT Amplifier | |

| |

| |

| |

High-Frequency Response--FET Amplifier | |

| |

| |

| |

Multistage Frequency Effects | |

| |

| |

| |

Square-Wave Testing | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Compound Configurations | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Cascade Connection | |

| |

| |

| |

Cascode Connection | |

| |

| |

| |

Darlington Connection | |

| |

| |

| |

Feedback Pair | |

| |

| |

| |

CMOS Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Current Source Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Current Mirror Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Differential Amplifier Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

BIFET, BIMOS, and CMOS Differential Amplifier Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Operational Amplifiers | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Differential and Common-Mode Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Op-Amp Basics | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Op-Amp Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Op-Amp Specifications--DC Offset Parameters | |

| |

| |

| |

Op-Amp Specifications--Frequency Parameters | |

| |

| |

| |

Op-Amp Unit Specifications | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Op-Amp Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Constant-Gain Multiplier | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltage Summing | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltage Buffer | |

| |

| |

| |

Controller Sources | |

| |

| |

| |

Instrumentation Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Active Filters | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Power Amplifiers | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction--Definitions and Amplifier Types | |

| |

| |

| |

Series-Fed Class A Amplifier | |

| |

| |

| |

Transformer-Coupled Class A Amplifier | |

| |

| |

| |

Class B Amplifier Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Class B Amplifier Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Amplifier Distortion | |

| |

| |

| |

Power Transistor Heat Sinking | |

| |

| |

| |

Class C and Class D Amplifiers | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Linear-Digital ICs | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Comparator Unit Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Digital-Analog Converters | |

| |

| |

| |

Timer IC Unit Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltage-Controlled Oscillator | |

| |

| |

| |

Phase-Locked Loop | |

| |

| |

| |

Interfacing Circuitry | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Feedback and Oscillator Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Feedback Concepts | |

| |

| |

| |

Feedback Connection Types | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Feedback Circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Feedback Amplifier--Phase and Frequency Considerations | |

| |

| |

| |

Oscillator Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Phase-Shift Oscillator | |

| |

| |

| |

Wien Bridge Oscillator | |

| |

| |

| |

Tuned Oscillator Circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Crystal Oscillator | |

| |

| |

| |

Unijunction Oscillator | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Power Supplies (Voltage Regulators) | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

General Filter Considerations | |

| |

| |

| |

Capacitor Filter | |

| |

| |

| |

RC Filter | |

| |

| |

| |

Discrete Transistor Voltage Regulation | |

| |

| |

| |

IC Voltage Regulators | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Other Two-Terminal Devices | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Schottky Barrier (Hot-Carrier) Diodes | |

| |

| |

| |

Varactor (Varicap) Diodes | |

| |

| |

| |

Power Diodes | |

| |

| |

| |

Tunnel Diodes | |

| |

| |

| |

Photodiodes | |

| |

| |

| |

Photoconductive Cells | |

| |

| |

| |

IR Emitters | |

| |

| |

| |

Liquid-Crystal Displays | |

| |

| |

| |

Solar Cells | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermistors | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

pnpn and Other Devices | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Silicon-Controlled Rectifier | |

| |

| |

| |

Basic Silicon-Controlled Rectifier Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

SCR Characteristics and Ratings | |

| |

| |

| |

SCR Construction and Terminal Identification | |

| |

| |

| |

SCR Applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Silicon-Controlled Switch | |

| |

| |

| |

Gate Turn-Off Switch | |

| |

| |

| |

Light-Activated SCR | |

| |

| |

| |

Shockley Diode | |

| |

| |

| |

DIAC | |

| |

| |

| |

TRIAC | |

| |

| |

| |

Unijunction Transistor | |

| |

| |

| |

Phototransistors | |

| |

| |

| |

Opto-Isolators | |

| |

| |

| |

Programmable Unijunction Transistor | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary | |

| |

| |

| |

Oscilloscope and Other Measuring Instruments | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction | |

| |

| |

| |

Cathode Ray Tube--Theory and Construction | |

| |

| |

| |

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Voltage Sweep Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Synchronization and Triggering | |

| |

| |

| |

Multitrace Operation | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement Using Calibrated CRO Scales | |

| |

| |

| |

Special CRO Features | |

| |

| |

| |

Signal Generators | |

| |

| |

| |

Computer Analysis | |

| |

| |

Appendices | |

| |

| |

| |

Making the Chips That Run the World | |

| |

| |

| |

Hybrid Parameters--Conversion Equations (Exact and Approximate) | |

| |

| |

| |

Ripple Factor and Voltage Calculations | |

| |

| |

| |

Charts and Tables | |

| |

| |

| |

Solutions to Selected Odd-Numbered Problems | |

| |

| |

Index | |