Barbara G. Kanki is currently a staff research psychologist in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA-Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the Crew Factors research group. Dr. Kanki received her graduate degree from the Behavioral Sciences Department at the University of Chicago, where she specialized in the areas of communication and group dynamics. She came to Ames Research Center in 1985 as a National Research Council post-doctoral associate and began work in the aeronautical doman by studying the relationship between crew communication and aircrew performance, using both full-mission simulation and field research methods. Although much of the Crew Factors research focuses on the study of aircrew team performance and training in air transport operations, the work generalizes to other domains in the aviation system, such as aircraft maintenance, as well as to ground-based space operations. As such, the program has grown to include payload and orbiter processing teams for NASA shuttle missions and other teams, such as aquanauts and mountaineering teams, whose work environments are analogous to space operations in critical respects.Robert L. Helmreich is professor of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin. He received his Ph.D. in personality and social psychology from Yale University in 1966. He has conducted research on group processes and performance sponsored by NASA, the Office of Naval Research, and the FAA, as well as research on personality and motivation sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society and former editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. He was chair of an FAA working group to develop the National Plan for Aviation Human Factors. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine and Committee on Human Factors. He is Director of the NASA/University of Texas/FAA Aerospace Crew Performance Project investigating issues in crew selection, training, and performance evaluation in both aviation and space environments.